Volume 3 Issue 4

CONTENT LIST

  1. Chronic exposure assessment of toxic elements from agricultural soils around the industrial areas of Tangail district, Bangladesh
  2. Phytoplankton and epipelic algal abundance in relation to bridge construction on Okpoka River in the Upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria
  3. Evaluation of microbiological quality of dried baim (Mastacembelus armatus) in Bangladesh
  4. Effect of plant spacing and integrated nutrient management on the yield performance of Binadhan-14
  5. Analysis of economic valuation of environmental damage due to sand mine in Gumulung Tonggoh, Cirebon District, West Java Province, Indonesia
  6. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaf extract
  7. Effect of cassava peels and palm kernel cake (PKC) on the heamatological and  serum biochemical of grower pigs in Nigeria
  8. Production oriented survey (POS) on different aspects of rice cultivation and farmers practices under red and lateritic zone of West Bengal, India
  9. In vitro propagation of two strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) cultivars of Bangladesh 
  10. Effect of age of seedlings on the performance of drought tolerant Aman rice cultivars
  11. Assessment of morphological and nutritional attributes of two varieties of Ipomoea batatas (L.) utilized in Nigeria
  12. Current status of bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) disease in major tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growing areas in Egypt
  13. Comparative study of some indigenous crops with cereals (wheat and rice) in hilly areas of Uttarakhand (Western Himalaya) with special reference to their nutrients
  14. Effect of integrated nitrogen application on the yield of two Boro rice varieties: BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan74
  15. A review on aflatoxins in stored grain food, their sources, mechanisms and possible health hazard

Chronic exposure assessment of toxic elements from agricultural soils around the industrial areas of Tangail district, Bangladesh

Ram Proshad1*, Tapos Kormoker2, Md. Saiful Islam1,3, Md. Abu Hanif 4,5 and Krishno Chandra6 
1Department of Soil Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, BANGLADESH
2Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, BANGLADESH
3Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, JAPAN
4Department of Agroforestry and Environment, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, BANGLADESH
5Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Guangzhou, CHINA
6Department of Chemistry, Government Saadat College, Karatia, Tangail, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 18 November 2018; Revised received: 26 November 2018; Accepted: 30 November 2018

ABSTRACT
The present research was conducted to evaluate the potential ecological and human health risk of toxic elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) from agricultural soils around the industrial areas of Tangail district in Bangladesh. Potential ecological and human health risk were assessed through enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (Cif), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution load index (PLI), toxic unit analysis, exposure pathway, hazard quotient and hazard index. The mean concentration of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb in the studied soils were 5.88, 13.92, 18.07, 5.90, 2.19 and 8.08 mg/kg, respectively. The mean values of enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor, pollution load index and toxic units were found low for all metals excluding Cd. Considering the severity of potential ecological risk factor for single metal (Eir), the descending order of pollutants was Cd > As > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. In the perspective of potential ecological risk (PER), soils from all sampling sites indicated moderate to very high PER. Chronic daily intake values were higher in children than the adult for both ingestion and dermal contact as body weight of children was lower than the adult. The non-cancer health risks related to individual element exposure through soil ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation was low for all investigated elements resulted in a HQ < 1, indicating low risk for both adults and children. Considering the total exposure of hazard index of ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation, there was no chance of having non-cancer risk for the inhabitants of the studied industrial area. Carcinogenic risks for both adult and children lying between an acceptable ranges.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Carcinogenic risk, Chronic daily intake, Ecological risk, Health risk, Toxic elements

Phytoplankton and epipelic algal abundance in relation to bridge construction on Okpoka River in the Upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria

Ihuoma Ejiowhor1, Miebaka Moslen2* and Erema Ransome Daka3
1, 2 Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, NIGERIA
3 Institute of Pollution Studies, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 12 November 2018; Revised received: 21 November 2018; Accepted: 24 November 2018

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of bridge construction on abundance and composition of phytoplankton and epipelic algae with respect to bridge construction on a section (ATC Okrika Axis) of Okpoka River, upper Bonny estuary in Nigeria. Phytoplankton and epipelic algae were collected in five replicates from six stations (UA – upstream, BA – bridge position, DA – downstream of bridge (reclaimed side) and (UC – upstream, BC – bridge position, DC downstream of bridge (vegetated side -mangrove) side of the river between January and March 2017. Thirty samples were collected per month with appropriate containers, preserved in 5% formalin-water mixture, taken to the laboratory and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Ten species of phytoplankton (Gyrosigma spp., Synedra spp., Navicula spp., Nitzschia spp., Thalassiothrix spp., Coscinodiscus spp., Fragillaria spp., Pleurosigma spp., Cyclotella spp. and Rhizosolenia spp.) all belonging to the Baccillariophyceae (diatoms) were observed. Ten species (Gyrosigma spp., Navicula spp., Synedra spp., Nitzschia spp., Thalassiothrix spp., Coscinodiscus spp., Fragillaria spp., Pleurosigma spp., Cymbella spp. and Cocconeis spp.) of epipelic algae were also observed with the last two species in each group accounting for their differences. Cyclotella and Rhizosolema spp. were observed only on phytoplankton sampled and Cymbella and Cocconeis spp. were observed in epipelic algal samples suggesting minimal differences in composition. Analysis of variance indicated significant difference (P<0.05) in the abundance of both phytoplankton and epipelic algae between stations close to bridge construction compared to others sites farther away. The study therefore, concluded that activities of bridge construction across the Okpoka River impacted on the abundance and composition of phytoplankton and epipelic within the study area. Regular monitoring is recommended particularly after construction in order to detect recovery changes of these important aquatic algae that form the base of the food chain.

Keywords: Bonny estuary, Bridge construction, Epipelic algae, Okpoka River, Phytoplankton

Evaluation of microbiological quality of dried baim (Mastacembelus armatus) in Bangladesh

Tania Akter1*, Md. Abu Sayeed1, Md. Golam Rasul2, Md. Abul Kashem1 and Ajit Kumar Paul3
1Department of Fisheries Technology and Quality Control, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, BANGLADESH
2Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur-1706, BANGLADESH
3Deputy Project Director, Expansion of Aquaculture Technology Services up to Union Level Project (Phase II), Department of Fisheries (DoF), BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 03 November 2018; Accepted: 26 November 2018

ABSTRACT
A study was performed for five months to assess the microbiological quality of dried Baim (Mastacembelus armatus) in Sylhet region of Bangladesh. A total of 45 dried samples were randomly collected on monthly basis from three different sources of Sylhet region; one from producer (drying yard of Lamagaji) and others from retail market (Bandar Bazar) and control (prepared in laboratory). The mean total plate count (TPC) of dried Baim from producer, retail market and control were observed 6.20 ± 0.72 ×105, 9.64 ± 1.58 ×105 and 1.61 ± 1.06×105 cfu/g, respectively, whereas, average total fungal count (TFC) were estimated 3.77 ± 0.81 ×103, 4.65 ± 1.08 ×103 and 1.78 ± 0.64 ×103 cfu/g, respectively. TPC and TFC of dried Baim of retail market were found significantly (P<0.05) highest and significantly (P<0.05) lowest in control samples than others. Twenty five samples from each source were analyzed to determine pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella sp. Hundred percent samples of dried Baim of producer and retail market were found contaminated by E. coli whereas; the controlled samples were free of E. coli. Likewise, the dried Baim samples of producer and retail market were contaminated 60% and 80% respectively with Salmonella. Dried baim sample from market was 100%, producer sample was 62% and control sample was 32% contaminated with fungi. The most common fungus species in samples were Aspergillus fumigatus, Fuserium proliferatum and Rhizopus stolonifer. The overall microbiological quality of control samples was comparatively better than the commercially produced dried Baim in Sylhet region.

Keywords: Dried baim, Microbiological quality, Pathogenic bacteria, TPC, TFC

Effect of plant spacing and integrated nutrient management on the yield performance of Binadhan-14

Roshida Yasmin, Swapan Kumar Paul*, Shabuj Chandra Paul and Muhammad Salim
Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: Received: 22 November 2018; Accepted: 02 December 2018

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from June to December 2014 with a view to finding out the effect of plant spacing and integrated nutrient management on the yield of Binadhan-14. The experiment consisted of three spacing viz., 25 cm × 15 cm, 20 cm × 20 cm and 20 cm × 15 cm and seven nutrient management viz., recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer @ 180-150-70-65-8 kg ha-1 of Urea-TSP-MoP-Gypsum-ZnSO4 respectively, cowdung @ 10 t ha-1, poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1,  50% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + cowdung @ 5 t ha-1, 50% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha-1, 50% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + cowdung @ 10 t ha-1, 50% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Crop characters, yield components and yield of Binadhan-14 were significantly influenced by spacing, integrated nutrient management and their interaction. The highest number of effective tillers hill-1(6.81), 1000-grain weight (22.67 g) and grain yield (4.78 t ha-1) were recorded at the spacing 20 cm × 15 cm while in case of integrated nutrient management, the highest number of grains panicle-1 (64.47) was found with 50% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + cowdung @5 t ha-1, on the other hand, 1000- grain weight (22.91g), and grain yield (5.02 t ha-1) were found with 50% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer +  poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 while the lowest values  from  poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1. The highest grain (5.53 t ha-1) and straw (6.23 t ha-1) yields were found at the interaction of 20 cm × 15 cm spacing fertilized with 50% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1. It can be concluded that short duration Binadhan-14 can be transplanted at the 20 cm × 15 cm spacing fertilized with 50% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + poultry manure @5 t ha-1 to obtain maximum grain yield.

Keywords: Aman season, Binadhan-14, Nutrient management, Plant spacing, Recommended dose, Yield

Analysis of economic valuation of environmental damage due to sand mine in Gumulung Tonggoh, Cirebon District, West Java Province, Indonesia

Basuki Wasis1*, Bambang Hero Saharjo1, Fitri Kusumadewi1, Nur Hikmah Utami1 and Muhammad Hafiz Wasis Putra2
1Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Darmaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, INDONESIA
2Departement of Environment Economic, Faculty of Management and Economic, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Darmaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, INDONESIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 12 November 2018; Accepted: 26 November 2018

ABSTRACT
The sand mines at Gumulong Tonggoh in Cirebon Regency use an open mining system. Open mining activities can cause environmental damage and economic losses. The present investigation was carried out to analyze the economic valuation of environmental damage due to sand mine in Gumulung Tonggoh, Cirebon District, West Java Province, Indonesia. The sampling method and environmental damage analysis use purposive sampling. Data of laboratory tests of soil physical, chemical and biological properties was analyzed by statistical tests. The economic method of environmental damage valuation uses the Ministry of Environment guidelines (2006). Sand mining activities cause soil and environmental damage to the soil (soil solum, bulk density, permeability, and soil fauna) and vegetation (land cover). However, sand mining has caused changes in soil properties, namely a significant increase in bulk density of +0.49 (53.85%), reduction in porosity of 18.26 (27.79%), decrease in Ca of -11.17 (60.48%), a decrease in Mg of -5.76 (60.95%), a decrease in CEC of -19.06 (79.88%) and a decrease in the total microorganism of 47.00 (83.19). The total of economic valuation for environmental damage due to sand mining is Rp. 39,349,860,000. Therefore, the sand mining significantly contributed the environmental damage in the Gumulung Tonggoh, Cirebon District, West Java Province in Indonesia.

Keywords: Environmental damage, Indonesia, Sand mine, Soil physical and chemical properties, West Java Province

Phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaf extract

Satinder Pal Kaur Malhotra* and Tapan Kumar Mandal
Faculty of Science & Technology, ICFAI University Dehradun, Rajawala Road, Selaqui, Dehradun-248197 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 05 November 2018; Revised received: 18 November 2018; Accepted: 22 November 2018

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. belonging to family Moringaceae. Distilled water and ethanol was used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of M. oleifera to detect the phytochemical constituents and to screen its antibacterial activity. The phytochemical constituents were screened by qualitative analysis method. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, phenols, etc., in leaf extract of M. oleifera. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera was examined against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Antibacterial assay were done with ethanolic extract of M. oleifera in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 μL/well, using agar well diffusion method. The study showed that ethanolic extract of M. oleifera showed potent antibacterial activity against S. Aureus and E. coli.

Keywords: Agar well diffusion method, Antibacterial activity, Moringa oleifera Lam., Phytochemical Screening

Effect of cassava peels and palm kernel cake (PKC) on the heamatological and  serum biochemical of grower pigs in Nigeria

H. Moseri2, O.S. Oboh1, S.E. Okosun1 and C.E. Isidahomen1*
1Department of Animal Scimbrose Alli University Ekpoma, Edo State, NIGERIA
2Department of Agricultural Education, College of Education Agbor, Delta State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 14 September 2018; Revised received: 20 October 2018; Accepted: 10 November 2018

ABSTRACT
The research was carried out for a period of ten weeks at the piggery unit of the teaching and research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cassava peels and palm kernel cake (PKC) at 50:50 ratio on the heamatological and serum biochemical of grower pigs. Forty (40) grower pigs of large white were used; pigs were divided into 5 groups based on average initial weights (20-25kg) and each group of grower pigs were respectively allocated to each of the five treatment diets in a completely randomized design (CRD). At the end of the ten (10) weeks feeding trial, the animals were starved of feed for 12 hours before blood samples were collected from two pigs each per treatment from the ear vein using a sterilized disposable syringe   and needle. The parameters determine were red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC), total protein, albumin, and globulin and serum cholesterol. The result indicated that heamatological and serum biochemical parameters assessed fall within the normal range and is an indication of good nutrition and adequate nutrient intake. Therefore, the animals did not suffered muscular wastage but efficient utilization of cassava peels and palm kernel cake, ultimately resulted in high tissue deposition across treatment groups.

Keywords:  Cassava (Manihot esculenta) peels, Heamatological parameters, Palm kernel cake

Production oriented survey (POS) on different aspects of rice cultivation and farmers practices under red and lateritic zone of West Bengal, India

R. Mandal1, K. Jana2*, S. Ghosh3, A. Biswas3, K.K. Bhadra3 and G.K. Mallick3
1Department of Plant Pathology and 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya,    Mohanpur – 741252, Nadia, (West Bengal), INDIA
3Rice Research Station, Bankura- 722 101, (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
 Received: 30 October 2018; Revised received: 24 November 2018; Accepted: 26 November 2018

ABSTRACT
Production Oriented Survey (POS) on rice cultivation was conducted by Rice Research Station, Bankura under programme of AICRIP, Directorate of Rice Research (ICAR), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad – 50003 during kharif, 2009 in Red and Laterite zone of West Bengal, India. Purulia, Bankura and some parts of Birbhum, Paschim Medinipur and Burtdwan districts that belongs to Red and Laterite zone of West Bengal. The popular commercial cultivars were Swarna (MTU 7029), Lalat, Jaya, CR 1010, CR 1017 and IR-64.  Rice is cultivated as mono crop in this zone. The Indian sub-continent is predominantly characterized by a tropical monsoon climate which determines the success of kharif crops. Biotic constraints like blast, brown spot, sheath blight, sheath rot, grain dis-colouration and bacterial leaf blight (BLB) were in low to moderate intensities. Among insect pests brown plant hopper, green leaf hopper, stem borer, rice hispa and gundhi bugs were recorded in low to moderate intensities in the surveyed districts. Among weeds, Cyperus rotundus, Echinocloa crusgalli, Cyperus iria, Cynodon dactylan and Monochoria sp.  were major problem in all the districts. The farmers used mainly hand weeding for control of weeds. Minimum use of pesticides and insecticides were observed.

Keywords: Biotic stress, HYV and local rice varieties, Mono crop, Tropical monsoon climate 

In vitro propagation of two strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) cultivars of Bangladesh 

Tapati Roy*, S.M. Abdullah Al Mamun and Md. Monirul Islam
Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 24 September 2018; Revised received: 30 September 2018; Accepted: 01 October 2018

ABSTRACT
An experiment on in vitro propagation of strawberry was carried out at Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Laboratory of Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh during the period of February to November, 2015. In the experiment, runners of two strawberry cultivars viz. BARI Strawberry-1 and Modern Strawberry-5 (Festival) were cultured on MS  media supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mgL-1) and Kin (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mgL-1) for multiple shoot regeneration. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The highest number of shoots (10.41) was obtained from Modern Strawberry-5 and maximum shoot length (13.62 mm) obtained from BARI Strawberry-1. Maximum number of shoots (13.33) and shoot length (24.29 mm) were recorded from MS media containing 1.0 mgL-1 BAP and 1.0 mgL-1 Kin. Then all the regenerated plantlets were cultured on MS media containing 2.0 mgL-1 IAA for root initiation. Greater reduction in vigor was observed in Modern Strawberry-5 (Festival) when they were transferred to root induction media. Ex vitro survivability of the complete plantlets varied from 36.67 to 6.67%. Maximum survivability of both varieties 36.67% (BARI Strawberry-1) and 26.67% (Festival) were recorded from MS media supplemented with 1.0 mgL-1 BAP and 1.0 mgL-1 Kin. For in vitro micropropagation, BARI Strawberry-1 may be better and MS media supplemented with 1.0 mgL-1 BAP and 1.0 mgL-1 Kin may be better.

Keywords: BARI strawberry, Benzyl adinopurine (BAP), Kinetin (Kin), Modern strawberry

Effect of age of seedlings on the performance of drought tolerant Aman rice cultivars

Shakil Hosain1, Sarmin Akter1, Narayan Chakraborty1, Safayet Hossen1, Kawsar Hossen1* and Md. Golam Rabbani2
1Department of Agriculture, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, BANGLADESH
2Research Officer, Research Cell, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s Email: [email protected]
Received: 13 November 2018; Revised received: 30 November 2018; Accepted: 02 December 2018 

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted at the Field Laboratory of the Department of Agriculture, Noakhali Science and Technology University (NSTU), Sonapur, Noakhali, from July 2017 to December 2017 to study the effect of variety and age of seedling on yield performance of drought tolerant transplant aman rice. The experiment consisted of three varieties viz. BINA dhan7, BRRI dhan56 and BRRI dhan71 and five different ages of seedling viz.15 days old, 20 days old, 25 days old, 30 days old, and 35 days old. The experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Among the three varieties, BRRI dhan71 produced the highest grain yield (5.567 t ha-1) and the lowest grain yield (4.975 t ha-1) was obtained from BRRI dhan56. Among the five ages of seedlings, the highest grain yield (5.502 t ha-1) was obtained from 35 days old seedling and the lowest grain yield (5.092 t ha-1) was obtained from 15 days old seedling. In case of interaction between variety and spacing, the highest grain yield (5.723 t ha-1) was obtained from BRRI dhan71 with 35 days old seedling and the lowest (4.730 t ha-1) was obtained from BRRI dhan56 with 15 days old seedling. The result reveals that relatively older seedlings (35-days old) produce higher grain yield compared to the younger ones.

Keywords: Aman rice, Cultivar, Drought, Seedling age, Yield and variety 

Assessment of morphological and nutritional attributes of two varieties of Ipomoea batatas (L.) utilized in Nigeria

C.V. Ilodibia1*, C.U. Arubalueze2, S.N. Udearoh2, B.I. Okafor3 and C. Agbanusi1
1Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B 5025, Awka, Anambra State, NIGERIA
2Department of Agricultural Education, Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State, NIGERIA
3Department of Biology, Federal College of Education (Technical) Umunze, Anambra State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 19 November 2018; Revised received: 27 November 2018; Accepted: 30 November 2018

ABSTRACT
Morphological and nutritional studies were carried out on various parts of the two varieties of Ipomoea batatas (white fleshed TIS 87/0087 and orange fleshed UMUSPO/3) to determine their morphological and nutritional characteristics using standard techniques. Analysis of variance was employed for data analysis. Result revealed that the two varieties had similar qualitative morphological features but showed variation in their length, breadth, colour and girth. The result of the proximate analysis revealed that the nutrients were present in all the parts of the two varieties investigated but in varied proportions. Protein, fat and ash were highest in the leaves of both varieties when compared to other parts (12.13±0.20mg/100g, 3.92±0.14mg/100g and 2.85±0.06mg/100g of I.  batatas respectively.  Moisture and carbohydrate were highest in the tubers of both varieties when compared to other parts (10.73±0.22mg/100g and 81.22±3.80mg/100g) respectively while crude fiber was highest in the stem of the two varieties when compared to other parts (26.15±0.29mg/100g). Data obtained indicated that these parts of the two varieties contained appreciable amount of nutrients which could be included in diets to supplement our daily nutrient needs and animal feed. Apart from the tuber eaten by our people, other parts of the plant should also be used as food. Overall data could be a viable tool for sweet potato breeding as an improvement in sweet potato production. Morphological characteristics observed were similar indicating that the two varieties are phyllogenetically related. The data could also be used to enhance proper taxonomic characterization and identification of the species I.  batatas.

Keywords: Characteristics, Ipomoea batatas, Morphological, Nutritional, Taxonomy 

Current status of bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) disease in major tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growing areas in Egypt

Sameh Elnaggar, Atef M. Mohamed*, Abderadi Bakeer and Toba A. Osman
Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 63514-Fayoum, EGYPT
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 19 November 2018; Revised received: 26 November 2018; Accepted: 30 November 2018

ABSTRACT
A survey was carried out to determine the current status of bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) disease in major tomato growing areas in Egypt incidence and distribution. In the 2014/2015 cropping season in major tomato growing areas of Upper and Lower Egypt. In upper highest incidence of bacterial wilt occurred in Luxour Governorate (10.29%) and lowest in Al- Giza Governorate (9.41%). Wilt severity was recorded (3.44%) in Luxour Governorate and the lowest (2.60%) was recorded in Sohag Governorate. In Lower Egypt Governorates, the highest disease incidence was recorded in Al- Behiera (15.28%) followed by Al-Daqahlia, (13.23), Al- Gharbia (12.41), Kafr Al- Shikh(12.70) and Al- Sharqia  (12.14) Governorates.  The lowest disease incidence recorded in Al- Suiz Governorate (10.27%), followed by 11.28, 11.58 and 11.67% in Al- Qalioubia, Al- Ismailia and Al- Minoufia Governorates respectively. The highest bacterial wilt severity was recorded in Al- Behiera Governorate, fields (5.70%), followed by Al- Gharbia (4.60%), while the lowest bacterial wilt severity was recorded in Al- Suiz Governorate (2.63%), followed by 3.30, in Al- Qalioubia Governorate. All the collected plants were subjected to PCR to detect the infected samples. The expected 288 bp amplicon was detected in bacterial wilt infected samples from above mentioned governorates and diseases percentage and severity were calculated.

Keywords: Incidence, Polymerase chain reaction, Ralstonia, Severity, Tomato

Comparative study of some indigenous crops with cereals (wheat and rice) in hilly areas of Uttarakhand (Western Himalaya) with special reference to their nutrients

P.S. Chauhan
Tree Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College Gopeshwar, Chamoli, (Uttarakhand), INDIA
 E-mail: [email protected]
 Received: 01 October 2018; Revised received: 26 October 2018; Accepted: 22 November 2018

ABSTRACT
Traditional crops were frequently cultivated before two decades in hilly areas of Uttarakhand and economy of the local peoples depends on the production of these crops. But now a day’s migration and climate change is two major problems which affecting the farming system of these crops. When people migrate, their lands quickly turn barren because weeds and shrubs take root and are difficult to remove. Even peoples who are staying there, they are not interested to do the farming of such crops due to typical geographical situation. They depend on market for rice and wheat.  Some indigenous crops i.e. A. hypochondriacus, E. coracana, E. frumentacea, S. italica and F. tataricum were selected for the present investigation. Chemical compositions i.e. protein, carbohydrates, mineral, fiber etc. of all the selected crops have been analyzed and their nutrient percentage was compared with rice and wheat. Study showed that the nutrition percentage in indigenous crops was higher than rice and wheat. Maximum 410±22.0 kilo calorie energy was observed in A. hypochondriacus in comparison to wheat (346±21.34) and rice (345±21.33). Calcium (222±11.78 mg/100gm) and iron percentage (13.9±.99mg/100gm) was also higher recorded in same crop. However protein percentage in F. tataricum was higher (12±.98gm/100gm) in comparison to wheat (11.8±.97) and rice (6.8±.09gm/100gm). Overall higher nutrient content was recorded in selected millets in comparison to wheat and rice.

Keywords: Carbohydrates and nutrition, Indigenous crops, Migration, Nutrients composition, Setaria italic, Western Himalaya

Effect of integrated nitrogen application on the yield of two Boro rice varieties: BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan74

Mst. Shirin Akter*, Sabina Yeasmin and Ahmed Khairul Hasan
Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymenshingh-2202, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 16 November 2018; Accepted: 06 December2018

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of integrated nitrogen (N) application on the yield of Boro rice. The experiment was composed of two rice varieties: BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan74, and eleven N management approaches: control (without N), 100% varietal recommended dose (RD) of N from urea, 75% of RD from urea + 25% of RD from poultry manure (PM), 50% of RD from urea + 50% of RD from PM, 25% of RD from urea + 75% of RD from PM, 75% of RD from urea + 25% of RD from vermicompost (VC), 50% of RD from urea + 50% of RD from VC, 25% of RD from urea + 75% of RD from VC, 75% of RD from urea + 25% of RD from cowdung (CD), 50% of RD from urea + 50% of RD from CD and 25% of RD from urea + 75% of RD from CD. Performance of BRRI dhan74 was better compared to BRRI dhan29 in terms of yield. For both verities, application of 75% of RD from urea + 25% of RD from PM produced the highest grain yield (BRRI dhan74: 3.30 t ha-1 and BRRI dhan29: 3.08 t ha-1) and the lowest with control among the N management approaches. Thus, it can be suggested that integrated N application with 75% of varietal RD from urea and 25% from PM in Boro rice cultivation will produce appreciable grain yield and also expected to have positive effect on soil health.

Keywords: Inorganic fertilizer, Integrated nutrient management, Manure, Recommended dose, Vermicompost 

A review on aflatoxins in stored grain food, their sources, mechanisms and possible health hazard

Anjan Chandra Sharma1, Ram Proshad2*, Tapos Kormoker3, Md. Saiful Islam2,4 and Krishno Chandra5 
1Faculty of Agriculture, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, BANGLADESH
2Department of Soil Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, BANGLADESH
3Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, BANGLADESH
4Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, JAPAN
5Department of Chemistry, Govt. Saadat College, Karatia, Tangail, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 10 October 2018; Revised received: 18 November 2018; Accepted: 22 November 2018

ABSTRACT
The aflatoxin producing fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus nomius are highly hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and immunosuppressive which can spread quickly in environment and contaminate stored food. It can lead to serious threats to both human and animal health hazards by causing various diseases. Aflatoxin can breakdown DNA and causes genomic damage during cell division, leading to cancer even death where these breakdown products accumulate in the liver. The chemistry and biosynthesis process of the aflatoxin is discussed in present review study in a nutshell along with their occurrences and the health hazards to human. This review focuses on sources, production, biosynthesis, toxicology, detection, and control techniques of aflatoxins to assure food safety. Present review study is valuable as it provides knowledge on aflatoxins toxicity which helps in food security and safety as well as reduces human diseases in future.

Keywords: Aflatoxins, Aspergillus spp., Cancer risk, Human health, Stored grain food