Volume 2 Issue 3

CONTENT LIST

  1. Effect of mulching and organic manure on growth and yield performance of wheat
  2. Evaluation of nickel levels in wastewater, soil and vegetable samples grown along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  3. Biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Thunbergia erecta (Benth.) T. Anders plant extracts
  4. Impact of row arrangements, age of tiller seedlings and number of tiller seedlings hill-1 on the growth performance of transplanted Aman rice (cv. BR23)
  5. Carbon sequestration potential of various litter components in temperate coniferous forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India
  6. Effects of boron foliar fertilization on irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mississippi River Valley Delta of themidsouth, USA
  7. Effect of nitrogen rates and irrigation regimes on nitrogen use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in southwest Ethiopia
  8. Genetic variation and morphological diversity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)
  9. Impact of weeding frequency in controlling flea beetles (Podagrica spp.) and yield of three varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in Gombe State, Nigeria
  10. Willingness to pay for improved drinking water facility in Samsani Khui, Johar Town, Lahore, Pakistan
  11. Toxicity of non-selective herbicide Paraeforce® to Periwinkle snail Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula
  12. Evaluation of potential rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes with different levels of N under rainfed shallow lowland situation 
  13. Soil and land resource evaluation for rural agricultural land use planning-A case study from hot semiarid ecosystem of western India
  14. Assessment of rainwater quality in industrial area of rural Panipat (Haryana), India
  15. Appraisal of phytochemical and antibacterial potential of Myrica nagi Willd. extracts against respiratory tract pathogens
  16. Agro-ecological characteristics and ethanobotanical significance of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.): An overview
  17. Recent advances in pesticide formulations for eco-friendly and sustainable vegetable pest management: A review
  18. Growth response of mahagony seedling (Swietenia macrophylla King.) to addition of coconut shell charcoal and compost on ex-sand mining site of West Java Province in Indonesia
  19. A review on toxicity of heavy metals due to intake of contaminated bovine milk

Effect of mulching and organic manure on growth and yield performance of wheat

M.A. Al­Amin1, A.K. Hasan2, M.H. Ali3, S. Nessa4 and M.N. Islam5* 
1Sample Collection Officer, Seed Certification Agency, Kushtia, BANGLADESH
2Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, BANGLADESH
3Scientific Officer, IWMD, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, BANGLADESH
4Lecturer, Department of Zoology, Govt. Edward College, Pabna, BANGLADESH
5Scientific Officer, Soil Science Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 25 July 2017; Accepted: 24 August 2017

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh in Rabi season (dry season) of 2014 to study the effect of mulching and organic manure on growth and yield performance of wheat. Five mulching practices viz. M1=1 irrigation at 17-21 days after sowing (DAS), M2=2 irrigations at 17-21 and 55-60 DAS, M3=3 irrigations at 17-21, 55-60 and 75-80 DAS, M4=control, M5=straw mulch (6 t ha-1) and five organic manure managements viz. O1=recommended chemical fertilizer (NPKS @ 100-23-20-16 kg ha-1), O2=poultry manure @ 6 t ha-1 (100% PM), O3=vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 (100% VC), O4=50% chemical fertilizer+50% VC and O5=50% chemical fertilizer+50% PM were used as experimental variables. The experiment was conducted in split-plot design with three replications. The results showed that mulching had significant influence on all attributes. The highest values of all attributes were found in straw mulch treatment. It was observed that organic manure had significant influences on all characters. The highest values of yield and yield attributes were found in O5 (50% chemical fertilizer+50% PM) treatment. It was observed that effective tillers hill-1, grain yield and straw yield were significantly affected by combined effect of mulching and organic manure. The highest values obtained from mulching and O5 (50% chemical fertilizer+50% PM) treatment. Therefore, it can be inferred from the results of the study that highest production could be obtained from mulching and O5 (50% chemical fertilizer+50% PM) treatment.

Keywords: Fertilizer, Harvest index, Irrigation, Poultry manure, Vermicompost, Wheat 
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Evaluation of nickel levels in wastewater, soil and vegetable samples grown along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

S.O. Oladeji
Polymer Technology Department, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, NIGERIA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 30 July 2017; Accepted: 23 August 2017

ABSTRACT
The concentration of nickel was evaluated in wastewater, soil and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okra) samples that were collected on seasonal basis from January, 2013 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed nickel concentrations in wastewater were in the range of 7.69 – 38.46 mg/L for the year 2013 and 7.68 – 27.04 mg/L in 2014; 1.92 – 21.37 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 8.24 – 24.32 mg/Kg in 2014 for the soil while the vegetables had concentrations in the range of 6.97 – 18.79 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 3.78 – 18.27 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in nickel levels across the locations and seasons for wastewater, soil and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation showed substantial (r = 0.631) relationship between nickel levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014, negative (r = -0.284) relationship was obtained for the soil between these two years whereas substantial (r = 0.634) relationship was obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and that of 2014, respectively. Thus, nickel concentrations obtained in this study was higher than maximum contaminant levels set by Standard Organizations such as WHO and FAO for wastewater whereas the soil and vegetables were less to limits set by these bodies.

Keywords: Kubanni River, Nickel level, Soil, Vegetable, Wastewater
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Biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Thunbergia erecta (Benth.) T. Anders plant extracts

Manokari1* and Mahipal S. Shekhawat2
1Department of Botany, K.M. Centre for Post Graduate Studies, Puducherry- 605008, INDIA
2Department of Plant Science, M.G.G.A.C., Mahe, Puducherry- 673311, INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 13 July 2017; Revised received: 23 July 2017; Accepted: 20 August 2017

ABSTRACT
The present study focuses on the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of Thunbergia erecta. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn (NO3)2.6H2O) solution was used as precursor to synthesize the nanoparticles. Five grams of plant materials (leaf, stem, root and flowers) were weighed and cut in to small pieces and boiled with deionised water in water bath at 50°C for about 30 min. The extracts were filtered and mixed with Zinc nitrate hexahydrate solution for the preparation of nanoparticles. Synthesis of nanoparticles were monitored by visual color change from colorless to yellow and characterized by UV-Visible double beam spectrophotometric analysis. The absorption peaks of leaf reaction medium was at 308 nm, stem and root reaction media were at 296 nm and flower reaction medium was at 302 nm as shown by the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results conclude that T. erecta could be exploited for green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles which can be used in the development of pharmaceutical products beneficial to the mankind.

Keywords: Absorption spectrum, Plant extracts, Reaction medium, Thunbergia erecta, Zinc oxide nanoparticles
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Impact of row arrangements, age of tiller seedlings and number of tiller seedlings hill-1 on the growth performance of transplanted Aman rice (cv. BR23)

M.A.R. Sarkar, M.A. Hossain and S.K. Paul*
Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 19 June 2017; Revised received: 18 July 2017; Accepted: 01 August 2017

ABSTRACT
The experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to see the effect of row arrangements, age of tiller seedlings and number of tiller seedlings hill-1 on growth of transplant Aman rice (cv. BR23). The experiment comprised three row arrangements viz. single, double and triple row; two ages of tiller seedling viz. 25 and 35 days and three levels of number of tiller seedlings hill-1 viz., 2, 4 and 6 tiller seedlings hill-1. The effect of row arrangement, age of tiller seedlings and number of tiller seedlings hill-1 were significant on plant height, number of leaves hill-1, number of total tillers hill-1, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and total dry weight. The tallest plants at 70 DAT, the highest number of leaves and leaf dry weight were found at 25, 40, 55 and 70 DAT in single row arrangement which was as good as double row arrangement while shorter plant and the lowest number of leaves hill-1 were found in triple row arrangement. The highest stem and total dry matter production hill-1 were recorded in triple row arrangement and the lowest were found in single row arrangement. Wider spacing significantly increased plant height, total tiller production hill-1, leaf production hill-1and leaf dry matter production while closer spacing of triple rows enhance stem and total dry matter production hill-1. Transplanted Aman rice (BR23) can be grown in single rows for the highest plant height, more tiller production, leaf production and leaf dry matter production hill-1. In case of total dry matter production cv. BR23 can be grown in triple rows by transplanting 35-day old seedlings with 6 tiller seedlings hill-1.

Keywords: Days after transplanting, Growth performance, Tiller seedling, Transplanted Aman rice
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Carbon sequestration potential of various litter components in temperate coniferous forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India

Muzamil Ahmad Sheikh*, Avinash Tiwari and Sangeeta Sharma 
School of studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 11 August 2017; Accepted: 26 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Natural forests play a key role in the mitigation of atmospheric carbon and have been studied by various workers but very limited work was carried out towards to the contribution of litter in carbon mitigation potential. The current study estimated the carbon sequestration potential in different components of litter in temperate coniferous forests. The results found that carbon content was found highest in cone followed by needle, branch and bark. Seasonal variation was found in all the components of the litter with highest carbon in autumn found at Daksum. During spring season Kuthar showed maximum contribution followed by Pahalgam in summer. Among different components of litter Cone contributed maximum at Kuthar while needle at Pahalgam. The result revealed that litter decomposition was directly related to the accumulation of soil organic carbon in all the ranges which depict the relation of litter with soil organic carbon. It was concluded that litter has an important contribution in sequestering atmospheric carbon as well as providing nutrients to the standing vegetation that mitigates the carbon dioxide.

Keywords: Annual variation, Carbon sequestration, Kashmir Himalayas, Litter, Seasons, Temperate forests 
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Effects of boron foliar fertilization on irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mississippi River Valley Delta of themidsouth, USA

H. Arnold Bruns
Crop Production Systems Research Unit, USDA-ARS, P.O. Box 350, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 8776, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 13 July 2017; Revised received: 28 July 2017; Accepted: 02 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Boron (B) deficiencies have been observed in some irrigated soybean fields in the lower Mississippi River Valley on silt loam soils of pH >7.0 and irrigated with water having high calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Boron fertilization effects on irrigated soybean grown using the Early Soybean Production System (ESPS) in the Midsouth have yet to be determined. Three commercial cultivars available for use in the ESPS were selected and foliar fertilized with a B solution at GS’s R3 and/or R5 at concentrations of 280 g B ha-1, 560 g B ha-1, or a split application at both R3 and R5 of 280 g B ha-1. Established stands were greater in 2016 than 2015 (262,378 vs. 180,804 plants ha-1) resulting in respective mean yields of 4239.7 vs. 3794.7 kg ha-1, but no significant interactions with years were noted.  Yields of AG4632 were unaffected by B fertilization.  Boron fertilization of P47T36 at R5 generally improved yields (>4000.0 kg ha-1) over the control (3668.6 kg ha-1) and applications at R3 (<3900.0 kg ha-1). The 560 g B ha-1 treatment at R3 for P50T64 produced less seed (3742.5 kg ha-1) than all other treatments while no other differences were noted. Some differences were noted in 100 seed weights but they were neither large nor consistent. It is doubtful that economic benefits to soybean in the Mississippi Delta would result unless a B deficiency was positively identified early in a growing season or in previous seasons.  It is concluded from this experiment, that foliar fertilization of soybean with B, as a general production practice, is not recommended

Keywords: Boron, Crop yield, Folier fertilization, Seed weight, Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.)
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Effect of nitrogen rates and irrigation regimes on nitrogen use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in southwest Ethiopia

Egata Shunka Tolessa1*, Derbew Belew2 and Adugna Debela2
1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Holetta Research Center, Horticulture Research Division, Addis Abeba, P.O. Box 3002,  ETHIOPIA
2Department of Plant Science in Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary  Medicine, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, ETHIOPIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 24 July 2017; Revised received: 08 August 2017; Accepted: 21 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Despite the high production potential of potato in Ethiopia, the national average yield is low mainly due to poor fertilizer and irrigation water management. Various scholars have indicated existence of knowledge gap among potato growers with regard to nitrogen application rates and irrigation regimes that could potentially enhance efficient use of both water and nitrogen in relation to variety. This work therefore was initiated to assess effects of nitrogen rates and irrigation regimes on nitrogen use efficiency of selected potato varieties in south western Ethiopia. The experiment was 33 factorial with three replication managed by Randomized Complete Block Design using Jalene, Guassa and Degemegn potato varieties; 130, 110, 90 kg/ha nitrogen rates, and 100%, 80% and 60% irrigations. Nitrogen content, uptake and utilization efficiency data collected were subjected to analysis of SAS Software version 9.2 and the mean separation was done by list significant difference (LSD). Irrigation and variety significantly affected the nitrogen utilization efficiency while only irrigation highly significantly influenced the nitrogen up take efficiency, nitrogen up take and shoot nitrogen content. Decreasing irrigation water from 20-40% decreased average nitrogen up take efficiency by 20.1- 38.86% and average nitrogen up take by 20.2-38.89%. The interaction of variety and irrigation significantly affected the average tuber nitrogen content.  Reducing irrigation water by 40% caused tuber nitrogen content reduction of 51.7 and 56.6% in case of Jalenie and Guassa varieties, respectively. It can be concluded that irrigation regimes and variety significantly affected nitrogen use efficiency of the potato varieties while the nitrogen rates did not influence the nitrogen use efficiency of the potato varieties significantly. Guassa and Jalenie varieties were more efficient than Degemegn variety.

Keywords: Irrigation regimesNitrogen content, Nitrogen use efficiency, Nitrogen rates, Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
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Genetic variation and morphological diversity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

K.P. Viswanatha1 and L.N. Yogeesh2*
1Vice Chancellor, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri-413722, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra), INDIA
2Assistant Professor (Plant Breeding), Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Raichur, Hagari-583111, Ballari, (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 24 July 2017, Revised received: 02 August 2017, Accepted: 22 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Cowpea is multipurpose pulse crop grown by poor and marginal farmers in arid zones of India. The extent of genetic diversity present in the cowpea accessions was studied for utilizing the most divergent parents for cowpea improvement programme. Genetic variability and genetic divergence was assessed in the 169 genotypes of cowpea using Mahalanobis D2. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance were observed for days to 50 per cent flowering, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant and seed yield per plant. The genotypes were grouped in to eight clusters, of which maximum intra cluster distance was exhibited by cluster VI and minimum by cluster II. The inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster II and IV. The genotypes from cluster II and IV, which have high and low cluster means for majority of the characters. The genetic advance estimates were medium to high (17.34% to 87.94%) for all the characters. seed yield contributed maximum towards the total diversity (48.05%), followed by days to 50 per cent flowering (21.08%), test weight (17.68 %), days to physiological maturity (3.58 %), plant height (3.49 %), pod length (1.69 %), number of clusters per plant (1.35 %), number of pods per plant (1.07 %), number of seeds per pod (0.75 %) lowest contribution was noted from number of branches (0.05 %)  per plant. Therefore, genotypes from same regions are not recommended for hybridization because of close genetic background which was evident from the result showing genotypes belonging to same cluster.

Keywords: Cowpea, Genetic advance, Genetic divergence, Genotypes, Heritability
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Impact of weeding frequency in controlling flea beetles (Podagrica spp.) and yield of three varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in Gombe State, Nigeria

M.M. Degri1*, M.Yusuf2, Musa1 and N. Bukar1
1Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Kashere, PMB 0182, Gombe, Gombe State, NIGERIA
2Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal College of Horticulture, Dadin Kowa, Gombe, Gombe State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 25 July 2017; Revised received: 22 August 2017; Accepted: 26 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Field studies were carried out at School of Agricultural Technology Teaching and Research Farm of Federal College of Horticulture, Dadin Kowa, Gombe State, Nigeria during 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons to assess the impact of weeding frequencies in controlling flea beetles (Podagrica spp.) using three varieties of Okra. Three varieties of Okra  (NGAE-96-1; NHAE-47-4 and Challawa) and four  weeding frequencies (no weeding, one weeding at 3 WAS, two weedings at 3 and 6 WAS and three weedings at 3, 6 and 9 WAS) were assessed using split plot laid out in randomized complete block design replicated three times. Results showed that the flea beetle (Podagrica spp.) populations, leaves and fruit damaged weight were significantly (P≤0.05) reduced while okra plant height and fruit yield were improved on plots that were weeded three times compared to other weeding frequencies. The result further showed that NGAE-96-1 and NHAE-47-4 reduced flea beetle (Podagrica spp.) populations, leaves and fruit damage than challawa. The results indicated that flea beetle control could be effectively achieved and okra production improved through the manipulation of weeding frequencies and selecting the appropriate okra varieties in the study area.

Keywords: Control, Frequency, Flea beetle, Okra variety, Yield, Weeding
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Willingness to pay for improved drinking water facility in Samsani Khui, Johar Town, Lahore, Pakistan

Sana Akhtar*, Aimen Sohail, Uniba Tariq, Fatima Asif Khan and Sidra Asghar
Department of Environmental Sciences, Kinnaird College for Women, 93 Jail Road, Lahore-54000, PAKISTAN
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 05 July 2017; Revised received: 24 July 2017; Accepted: 05 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Quality of drinking water is a universal problem specifically faced by many developing countries. Willingness to pay for improved drinking water facility of the people of a rural settlement, Samsani Khui, Johar Town in Lahore, Pakistan was assessed by questionnaire survey. This article intends to scrutinize the strong relation of these dynamics with willingness to pay by correlating them using chi square and multiple regression. Conferring to results, health status of the people of selected area revealed that 50% adults and 31.9 % children suffered from diarrhea within last 6 months. Education level of 48.6% people is middle school. Income of people lies between 5000-30,000 Rupees per month. People with poor health status held strong association with willingness to pay while low income level and low education level had weak association with willingness to pay. The highest and lowest value calculated are 53.969, -4.83, respectively and the mean ratio of willingness to pay was 1.835. The average willingness to pay calculated was between Rs. 1 to 5. This study depicted that various dynamics including health status, monthly income and education level of the people are the determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) for improved drinking water facility.

Keywords: Chi-square, Drinking water quality Lahore, Multiple regression, Willingness to pay (WTP)
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Toxicity of non-selective herbicide-Paraeforce® to Periwinkle snail Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula

Doris Fovwe Ogeleka1, Emmanuel Temiotan Ogbomida2,3*, Precious Aghogho Odivwri1, Lawrence I.N. Ezemonye4 and Felix Ebodaghe Okieimen5
1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Delta State, NIGERIA
2Ecotoxicology and Environmental Forensic Unit, National Centre for Energy and Environment (Energy Commission of Nigeria), University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, NIGERIA
3Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita ku, Sapporo 060-0818, JAPAN
4Department of Animal and Environmental Biology (AEB), Faculty of Science, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, NIGERIA
5Geo-Environmental and Climate Change Adaptation Research Centre, University of Benin, Benin City, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 25 July 2017; Revised received: 20 August 2017; Accepted: 25 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Periwinkle snails Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula, an important shellfish in the Niger Delta ecological zone are on the decline and they have not been considered in environmental risk assessment due to the lack of standardized protocols. The gastropod is an abundant species and widely distributed in the aquatic Niger Delta environments. In this study T. fuscatus var radula was exposed to ParaeForce(e), a solution of paraquat dichloride, a non-selective commonly used organochlorine herbicide due to it sensitivity to chemical compounds, as pollution indicators. The effect of lethal and sub lethal exposure of ParaeForce® was assessed using the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) #218 protocol to determine the toxicity and safe limit concentrations. The lethal exposure gave an average LC50 of 0.665 mg/kg with a safe limit of 0.0665 mg/kg. The sub lethal test showed that the exposed organisms reduced significantly in body mass at levels of P < 0.05 when compared to the control experiment. Mean percent growth rate relative to the control reduced from 100% to 47% while the highest growth inhibition of 53% was observed in the highest concentration. Thus, the release of the test chemical and other similar herbicides into the environment may cause alteration and loss of body mass in periwinkle molluscs due to their toxic potentials. It is important to exercise caution in the application of this herbicide especially in the aquatic environment for weed control.

Keywords: Contamination, Growth retardation, Herbicides, Lethal concentration (LC50), Periwinkle, Sediment
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Evaluation of potential rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes with different levels of N under rainfed shallow lowland situation 

K. Jana1*, G.K. Mallick3, S.K. Das1, B. Biswas1, M.K. Kundu2, R.J. Koireng4 and A.M. Puste2
1Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani- 741235, Nadia, (West Bengal), INDIA
2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur- 741252, Nadia, (West Bengal), INDIA,
3Rice Research Station, Bankura-722 101 (West Bengal), INDIA
4Directorate of Research, Central Agricultural University, Imphal-795004 (Manipur), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 24 July 2017; Accepted: 24 August 2017

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the yield of potential rice genotypes during kharif season, 2012 and 2013 at Rice Research Station, Bankura, West Bengal, India on sandy loam soil of slightly acidic in reaction (pH: 5.7). This experiment was conducted in split-plot design with three replications. The results indicated that 105 kg N ha-1, the yield attributes recorded maximum number of panicles m-2 (307.9), panicle length (25.3cm), panicle weight (2.32g), number of filled grains per panicle (117.8), 1000-grains weight (24.5g) and finally recorded highest grain yield (4.80 t ha-1) than lower fertilities. While, 70 kg N ha-1 was remained closed to 105 kg N ha-1 in number of panicles m-2, panicle weight and number of filled grains per panicle. Among the potential rice varieties ‘Sampriti’ (IET 21987) recorded the highest grain yield (4.66 t ha-1) under rainfed shallow lowland situation of red and laterite zone of West Bengal. The highest grain yield (4.80 t ha-1) was obtained at 105 kg N ha-1and it was statistically at par with 70 kg N ha-1 (4.62 t ha-1). Therefore, the increased in grain yield of rice by the varieties due to overall respective performance in growth and appreciable improvement in the yield attributing characters.

Keywords: Nitrogen levels, Potential rice varieties, Rainfed shallow lowland, Rice genotypes
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Soil and land resource evaluation for rural agricultural land use planning – A case study from hot semiarid ecosystem of Western India

B.P. Bhaskar1*, Sunil Maske2, S.S. Gaikwad1, A. Chaturvedi3, Jagdish Prasad1, S.G. Anantwar1 and S.K. Singh1
1Principal Scientist, ICAR-NBSS&LUP, Division of Soil Resource Studies, Amravati road, Nagpur-440033 (Maharashtra), INDIA
2Senior scientist, Regional Centre, ICAR-NBSS&LUP, Hebbal, Bangalore-560024 (Karnataka), INDIA
3Principal scientist & Head, Division of Land Use Planning, Amravati road, Nagpur-440033(Maharashtra), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 25 July 2017; Accepted: 25 August 2017

ABSTRACT
The farmers of today are expected to maintain rural agricultural landscapes with production mandates that restrict their mandate to integrate conservation plans with landscape management. In this context, an effort was made to evaluate the degree of land use, management and conservation practices adopted in Lagadwal village of Dhule district through detailed soil survey and photopedological interview walks and discussions with farmers. The landscape photographs were thematically arranged and analyzed to construct and narrate theories of land care by local farmers on erosive high hills covering thirty per cent of area (>620m elevation) and supporting extremely shallow Budkhed and Lagadwal series in southern part of the village. The photo views of erosive mid hill landscapes with gullies and landslip areas (40% of area, 600 to 620m) have soil association of moderately shallow Lagadwal thana series on crests / side slopes to very deep Brahmasila and Gaikot series in lower slopes whereas low hills (35% of area, 580 to 600m) with ridge lines and drainage depressions have moderately deep Lagadwal tola series. The farmer’s did not perceive the long term landscape changes occurred due to partially effective conservation plans and pressing financial issues. The photographs revealed the unclear realties of harvesting farm produce on these steeply sloping erosive landscapes emphasizing more on explicit policy toward land management practices and offers opportunity to the farmer’s to change their farm production management activities. The photographs were not intended to evaluate land care per se but offers an insight to the farmers how they look of the land at landscape level.

Keywords: Conservation plans, Lagadwal photo elicitation, Land care, Soil survey
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Assessment of rainwater quality in industrial area of rural Panipat (Haryana), India

Pawan Kumar Bharti1, 4*, Vijender Singh2 and Pawan Kumar Tyagi3,4
1R&D Division, Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, 19, University Road, Delhi- 110007, INDIA
2Green Consultancy and Research Pvt. Ltd., Jind (Haryana), INDIA
3Econ Laboratory and Consultancy Pvt. Ltd., Dehradun (Uttarakhand), INDIA
4Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri, University, Haridwar- 249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 12 July 2017; Revised received: 27 July 2017; Accepted: 05 August 2017

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted in Panipat industrial area for the evaluation rain water quality and indirectly the air pollution load created by industries in the vicinity. The rain water quality of first rain was assessed for the evaluation of air pollution load of region. Selected physico-chemical characteristics like temperature, pH (6.23-6.85), TDS (105-187 mg L-1), DO (4.2-5.6 mg L-1), Free CO2  (0.8 mg L-1), Pb (0.09 mg L-1), Fe (0.085-0.132 mg L-1), sulphate (121.2-131.8 mg L-1), silica (3.51-7.26 mg L-1), turbidity (11-19 NTU), total hardness (81-120 mg L-1), chloride (3.20-6.75 mg L-1), BOD (2-4 mg L-1), and COD (14-31 mg L-1) were detected for the evaluation of pollution load in rainwater. The present study revealed that the water quality of first rain was found highly polluted in comparison to second rain. The difference between first heavy rain and second rain was found significant and in favour of increasing air pollution in the industrial area. The trace amount of chloride, silica, lead, iron, sulphate, free carbon dioxide was found in first heavy rain of the region while in the second rain all these were found in very less quantity. The difference in the concentrations of pollutants in rainwater gives the basic idea about the air pollution load of the vicinity. In fact, this is a novel technique to monitor air pollution load of any particular area using rainwater quality monitoring.

Keywords: Air pollutants, Pollution assessment, Rain water, Water quality parameters  
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Appraisal of phytochemical and antibacterial potential of Myrica nagi Willd. extracts against respiratory tract pathogens

Sanjay Kumar1*, Navneet1 and M.M. Tiwari
1Department of Botany and Microbiology, 2Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404, (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 11 July 2017; Revised received: 20 August 2017; Accepted: 26 August 2017

ABSTRACT
In the present study the antibacterial activity was studied against five bacterial pathogens i.e. Haemophilus influenzae MTCC 3826, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2474, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 1144, Streptococcus pneumoniae MTCC 655 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC 442. Shade dried root were crushed and extracted in petroleum ether (PET), acetone (ACE), methanol (MeOH) and water (H2O) by using Soxhlet apparatus. The agar well diffusion method was adopted to examine antibacterial activity of extracts against the susceptible organisms. Erythromycin was used as positive control to determine the sensitivity of the strains. Phytochemical analysis was done for plant extract. The results showed that MeOH extract was most active as comparison to other extract. The maximum inhibition was found against H. influenzae (18.4±0.07 mm) followed by S. pyogenes (17.3±0.13 mm), S. pneumoniae (16.2±0.07 mm) and P. aeruginosa (15.5±0.15 mm) respectively. The minimum inhibition was noted against S. aureus (14.4±0.13 mm). The phytochemical screening for MeOH extract has shown that plant contains flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpene, saponins and tannins. Therefore, M. nagi can be helpful as an alternative source of medicine and new drug discovery.

Keywords: Agar well diffusion method, Antibacterial activity, Haemophilus influenzaMyrica nagi
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Agro-ecological characteristics and ethanobotanical significance of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.): An overview

Digvijay Singh Teotia1*, Amit Kumar2, Vishal Kumar3 and Sweta Singh3
1Department of Environment Engineering, 2Department of Biotechnology, 3Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science, Subharti Institute of Technology & Engineering, Swami Vivekanand Subahrti University, Meerut-250005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 03 June 2017; Revised received: 11 July 2017; Accepted: 01 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is one of the oldest crops. It is native to the old world. It occurs naturally in Mediterranean Region, North Eastern Africa and South Western Asia to India. It is cultivated in India mainly for oil and dye. The purpose of the present paper is to highlight the ethanobotanical properties and importance of the safflower as an ancient wonderful crop and it also focus on the environmental conditions required for the growth of safflower in India. The seeds are also used as Birdseeds. It has been grown in the past for ornamental, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Presently it has become important mainly due to edible oil, which is obtained from its seeds. The oil is helpful in lowering blood cholesterol. It is specifically relevant to India being the largest producer of Safflower in the world. The safflower is mainly grown in India for its valuable edible oil which has many important properties related to health. The present paper also highlights the other uses of safflower beyond edible oil. The safflower oil is valuable as it content omega-6 fatty acids which are beneficial for our body. It maintains a balance of cholesterol in the body and reduces the chances of developing atherosclerosis. The various studies have shown that moderate safflower seed consumption is good for cardiovascular health. The consumption of safflower seed is also efficient in reducing belly fat. The safflower oil also lowers high blood pressure. The medicinal properties of safflower have been discovered as early as the Middle Ages, where the juice of safflower plant is mixed with chicken stock or sweetened water to relieve constipation and respiratory problems. 

Keywords: Agro-ecological practices, Ethanobotanical significance Safflower, Nutritional composition
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Recent advances in pesticide formulations for eco-friendly and sustainable vegetable pest management: A review

Dipak Kumar Hazra*, Rajib Karmakar, Rajlakshmi Poi, Sudip Bhattacharya and Swagata Mondal
Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Directorate of Research, Research Complex Building, Kalyani-741 235, Nadia, (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 27 July 2017; Revised received: 08 August 2017; Accepted: 20 August 2017

ABSTRACT
In order to reduce the loss and maintain the quality of vegetables harvest, pesticides are used together with other pest management techniques during cropping to destroy pests and prevent diseases. However, the use of pesticides during production often leads to the presence of pesticide residues in vegetables after harvest. Higher doses and repeated applications of conventional formulations lead to accumulate pesticide residues in vegetable commodities along with environmental pollution. With the increasing awareness of toxic effects of conventional formulations, there is a significant trend towards switching over from such pesticide formulations using petroleum and organic solvent based constituents to user and environment friendly water based pesticide formulations. The developed world has progressed substantially in this regard to develop eco-friendly formulations which are safer to vegetable and the environment. These formulations would not only replace toxic, non-degradable ingredients/adjuvants of the conventional formulations but also increase the bio-efficacy of the products through incorporating latest technologies including size reduction (Wettable Powder to Suspension Concentrate, Soluble Concentrate to Microemulsion), increased coverage of applied surface area (EC to ME/Nano-formulations), reduced wastage (Dust/WP to Controlled Release Formulations) and dose rates of applied same pesticides to improve food quality with minimum pesticide residues.

Keywords: Adjuvants, Bio-efficacy, Conventional, Formulation, New generation 
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Growth response of mahagony seedling (Swietenia macrophylla King.) to addition of coconut shell charcoal and compost on ex-sand mining site of West Java Province in Indonesia

Basuki Wasis* and Angga Andika
Departemen of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, West Java, INDONESIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 23 June 2017; Revised received: 22 August 2017; Accepted: 26 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Riverbank is the area that is frequently being used for sand mining site. Overexploited and poorly-managed sand mining will give negative impacts to environment. To prevent and to reduce worse environmental damage, efforts to control the negative effects should be done. One of efforts that can be implemented is revegetation on the damaged land by sand mining activities, thus it needs the type of vegetation that could adapt to its environment. Mahagony (Swietenia macrophylla King.) is a plant that could adapt to ex-sand mining site environment. This research was carried out to assess the effect of adding compost manure and coconut shell charcoal for the growth of mahagony seedling (S. macrophylla) on ex-sand minig site and to identify proper dose for the coconut shell charcoal and compost manure to condition of the site. This research uses complete random design (CRD) factorial. The result of this research shows that giving  coconut shell charcoal and compost manure  does not have significant effect to all parameter viz height, diameter, total wet weight (TWW), total dry weight (TDW), and root apex ratio (RAR) of S. macrophylla. Giving compost manure partially has significant effect to high parameter, total wet weight, total dry weight, and root apex ratio of S. macrophylla with the best dose amounting to 100 g. The addition dose of coconut shell charcoal 20 g give the best response to total wet weight parameter of S. macrophylla.

Keywords: Coconut shell charcoal, Compost manure, Ex-sand mining site, Mahagony
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A review on toxicity of heavy metals due to intake of contaminated bovine milk

L.N. Ranathunga1 and M. Esakkimuthu2*
1Faculty of Agriculture, Aquinas College of Higher Studies, No. 30, Gnanartha Pradeepa Mawatha, Colombo 08, SRILANKA
2Department of Agricultural Extension, Kerala Agricultural University, Regional Agricultural Research Station, 671310, Kasaragod, (Kerala), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 24 July 2017; Revised received: 23 August 2017; Accepted: 27 August 2017

ABSTRACT
Environmental pollution is a grievous problem that people on the earth encounter. Anthropogenic activities such as industrialization, urbanization and especially agricultural activities have made a substantial contribution causing the deteriorations of land resources, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Heavy metals being a noticeable pollutant in the environmental pollution have already caused direct and indirect toxicities to human beings. These heavy metals tend to accumulate through food chains and food webs in human and animal tissues leading them to suffer from variety of health problems. Milk and other dairy products have played a significant route of heavy metal exposure to humans since they are largely being consumed at present. This review provides a snapshot about the threats associated with ingestion of toxic heavy metals through milk and other dairy products as to be vigilant in order to ensure the food safety.

Keywords: Bovine milk, Dairy products, Environmental pollution, Food safety, Heavy metals toxicity
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