Volume 2 Issue 4

CONTENT LIST

  1. Physiological parameters and yield differ in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars with variable water management systems
  2. Allelopathic effect of peanut, sunflower and corn crops on germination and growth of some winter weeds
  3. Intestinal enzyme activities, Carcass biochemical composition and growth performance evaluation of Cirrhinus mrigala fed on heat processed soybean (Glycine max) supplemented diets
  4. Assessing fat and aquaculture feed recyclable from chicken wastes of poultry slaughterhouse in Bojnoord, North Khorasan Province, Iran
  5. Assessment of physico-chemical and heavy metals properties of some agricultural soils of Awing-North West Cameroon
  6. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis niloticus from a Tidal creek in the Niger Delta, Nigeria
  7. Impacts of coal mine water and Damodar River water irrigation on soil and maize (Zea mays L.) in a coalfield area of Damodar Valley, India
  8. Nutrient characteristics assessment of two variants of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) found in Anambra State, Nigeria
  9. Interaction effect of seedling age and different doses of GA3 on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
  10. Effects of crossbreeding on fruits characteristics of two species of tomatoes (Solanum esculentum L. and Solanum pimpinellifolium L.)
  11. Effectiveness of integrated weed management in five varieties of aromatic rice in Bangladesh
  12. Assessment of parasitic load in goat through the examination of faecal matter 
  13. Impact of wastewater on nitrate concentrations in soil and vegetables grown along Kubanni River, Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria
  14. Effect of water and weed management in Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan28) in Bangladesh
  15. Impact of climate change on yield of different crops grown in Cachar district of Assam, India
  16. A review of ecological agricultural practices as an important component of climate resilient management
  17. A review on sewage sludge (Biosolids) a resource for sustainable agriculture
  18. Phyto-adsorption treatment of paper mill effluent using leaf powder of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms
  19. Evaluation of antagonistic activities of Bacillus spp. against certain bacteria of medical importance
  20. Spatial distribution of solid waste disposal sites in Allahabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India using GIS approach
  21. Effects of shade level and microenvironment on vegetative growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of transplanted cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

Physiological parameters and yield differ in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars with variable water management systems

U.K. Sarker, M.R. Uddin*, M.A.R. Sarkar, M.A. Salam and A.K. Hasan
Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH
 *Corresponding author’s E-mail: romijagron@bau.edu.bd
Received: 08 October 2017; Revised received: 07 November 2017; Accepted: 14 November 2017

ABSTRACT
Yield reduction of rice is a severe problem due to the advent of increasing water scarcity and efficiency is relatively low. Physiological attributes and yield performance of high yielding (HYV) rice cultivars need to be assessed by minimizing water loss. Therefore, a glasshouse experiment was conducted in Bangladesh to investigate the impact of cultivars and water management on growth dynamics, biomass production, and yield and water productivity. Ten HYV boro (dry season irrigated) rice cultivars along with fivewater management systems were included in the study. The study revealed that cultivars Binadhan-10 had higher value of leaf area index (LAI), root dry weight along with moderate panicle length. Accordingly, the cultivar Binadhan-10 had a higher yield than all other cultivars because of the highest total dry matter (TDM), number of effective tillers hill-1, and number of grains panicle-1. Growth, TDM, and yield were increased with water application up to 8 DAD after which these factors declined with increasing water stress at 10 DAD. The crop grown at CS condition did not increase the yield, rather caused the wastage of irrigation water. The water productivity was the highest (0.252 t ha-1cm-1) in 10 DAD treatments, obviously due to minimum water use but highest yield was observed in 8 DAD because of optimum use of water and non stress condition. Therefore, the present study was useful in the screening of the most efficient cultivars, which could be strongly recommended to rice growers to improve crop yield and reduce the use of water.

Keywords: Growth stage, HYV rice, Water stress, Subtropical environment, Water productivity

Allelopathic effect of peanut, sunflower and corn crops on germination and growth of some winter weeds

M.M. Abou El-Enin* and M.A.F. Abdel-Ghffa
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, EGYPT
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: magro_modeller@yahoo.com
Received: 22 July 2017; Revised received: 18 October 2017; Accepted: 2 November 2017

ABSTRACT
The present study was carried out to study the effects of three summer crops water extracts (peanut, sunflower, maize) on germination and seedling growth of six winter weeds (Medicago polymorpha, L., Sonchus oleraceus, L., Lathyrus hirsutus, L., Phalaris minor, Anagallis arvensis, L., Rumex dentatus, L.) and two winter field crops (Beta vulgaris L. and Vicia faba L.) under laboratory condi-tions. Results revealed that Peanut water extract was recorded the highest mean inhibition values (31.25, 47.81, 89.58 and 74.22%) for L. hirsutus, A. arvensis, V. faba and B. vulgaris, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest mean inhibition values (97.92 and 85.16 %) were obtained from the maize water extract for V. faba and B. vulgaris, respectively. While, the highest inhibition values (27.50, 66.67, 59.83 %) were obtained from the interaction effect between Peanut extract with con-centration 40% for A. arvensis, V. faba and B. vulgaris, the percentage inhibition of them were (69.44, 33.33, and 32.14 %), respectively. Peanut extract was recorded the highest mean inhibition values (6.12 and 7.06 cm) for shoot length of A. arvensis and B. vulgaris, respectively. On the other hand, maize extract was activated the growth of shoot V. faba values (17.26 cm). In addition, the highest inhibition percentages (80.22, 79.61, 75.86, 65.64, 51.79, 25.39 and 15.66%) were obtained from 40% concentration for shoot length of M. polymorpha, R. dentatus, A. arvensis, S. oleraceus, P. minor, L. hirsutus and B. vulgaris, respectively, as compared with control treatment, in 2014. Moreover, the interaction effect between maize extract and concentration 20% for was activated growth of shoot length V. faba values (20.15 cm) the percentage inhibition for him (55.00 %). Peanut extract was recorded the highest mean inhibition values (1.38, 1.81, and 2.05 cm) for root length of S. oleraceus, P. minor and R. dentatus, respectively. On the other case, Sunflower extract was activated growth of shoot V. faba values (11.86 cm) while, peanut extract was activated the shoot growth of B. vulgaris values (13.58 cm). Also, 20% concentration was activated the root growth of B. vulgaris and V. faba (39.36 and 23.79 %) respectively. The interaction effect between peanut extract and concentration 20% was activated root growth of B. vulgaris values (15.85 cm), while, sun flower extract with concentration 20% was activated root growth of V. faba values (14.95 cm). Therefore, the water extracts of peanut, sunflower and maize showed the inhibitory effects on the seedlings of winter weeds.

Keywords: Agricultural crops, Allelopathic effect, Interaction effect percent inhibition, Water extract, Winter weeds

Intestinal enzyme activities, Carcass biochemical composition and growth performance evaluation of Cirrhinus mrigala fed on heat processed soybean (Glycine max) supplemented diets

Anita Bhatnagar*, Neelam Rajharia and Oshin Dhillon
Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: anitabhatnagar@gmail.com
Received: 29 September 2017; Revised received: 06 November 2017; Accepted: 14 November 2017

ABSTRACT
The increasing cost and unpredictable availability of fishmeal and anti-nutritional factors of plant proteins necessitates the search on cheap and abundantly available protein source with capabilities of growth promotion. The feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of hydrothermically processed soybean on growth performance, intestinal enzymatic activity and carcass composition for which three diets were formulated T1, T2, T3 containing fish meal, raw soybean, and processed soybean, respectively. Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings were stocked in glass aquaria (60×30×30cm)/ plastic tubs (50L) for each diet in triplicates. Fingerlings were fed twice daily @ 4% of wet body weight for 90 days. Length-weight measurements were done fortnightly to adjust the feed quantity. Significantly (P<0.05) high growth performance and low FCR were observed in the fingerlings fed with diet containing processed soybean. Crude protein (%), crude fat (%) and gross energy (kJ g-1) were found to be significantly (P<0.05) high in the carcass of fish fed with T3. Intestinal enzymatic activities were also significantly higher in the group T3 than to those fed on fish meal and raw soybean. The excretion of ammonia and reactive phosphate was also low with the inclusion of processed soybean, indicating the good quality of water. Therefore, the use of hydrothermically processed soybean in the diets can help in substituting fish meal protein without compromising growth and digestibility parameters and the use of processed soybean in the diets can also eliminate or reduce the pollution problems associated with intensive aquaculture system.

Keywords: Cirrhinus mrigala, Excretion, Fish meal, Intestinal enzyme activities, Processed soybean, Supplemented diets

Assessing fat and aquaculture feed recyclable from chicken wastes of poultry slaughterhouse in Bojnoord, North Khorasan Province, Iran

Hosein Alidadi1, Elham Rahmanpour Salmani2 and Mohammad Reza Hamidi3*
1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IRAN
2Environmental Health Unit, Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IRAN
3Environmental Health Unit, Bojnoord Health Center, Hor Street, Social Security Hospital, Bojnoord, IRAN
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: Mrhamidi1357@gmail.com
Received: 04 October 2017; Revised received: 29 October 2017; Accepted: 14 November 2017

ABSTRACT
The rapid growth of poultry industry has caused large amounts of chicken wastes that must be recycled regarding environmental and economic concerns. This study aimed to assess the fat and aquaculture feed producible from chicken wastes in the Bojnoord poultry slaughterhouse, Iran. The chicken wastes including fatty tissue, viscera, and coccygeal were sampled at three different periods in 2016. Fat samples were analyzed by gas chromatography for determining the fatty acid (FA) profile. The degreased wastes then were used for producing aquaculture feed pellets once in combination with flour and once in mix with poultry by-product meal (PBM). The pellets were tested for physicochemical properties. Averagely, 58.9% of the fatty tissue, 14.5% of the viscera, and 30.4% of the coccygeal were recycled as fat content. Totally, 109368 kg-fat/year was extractable from chicken wastes. The oleic, palmitic, stearic, and palmitoleic represented more than 80% of the total FA content. 67.41% and 67.16% of FA composition was unsaturated and composed of cis-isomers, respectively. The iodine value (IV) and saponification value (SV) were 58.7 g iodine/100 g oil and 156.12 mg KOH/g oil, respectively. The content of moisture, protein, fat, fiber, and ash in the feed composed of degreased chicken wastes and PBM was 7.8, 41.2, 34, 0.9, and 4.4%, respectively. The fat obtained from chicken wastes was suitable for non-edible consumption. Combining degreased wastes with PBM resulted in protein-rich aquaculture feed. This study showed the economic and health benefits of separating components of the poultry slaughterhouse wastes and the possibility of producing aquaculture feed containing suitable micronutrients from these wastes.

Keywords: Aquaculture feed, Chicken wastes, Fatty Acids, Poultry industry, Recycling

Assessment of physico-chemical and heavy metals properties of some agricultural soils of Awing-North West Cameroon

Nelson Alakeh Mofor2, Estella Buleng Njoyim Tamungang1, 2*, Antoine David Mvondo-zé3, Georges Kogge Kome3 and Kenneth Mbene4
1Department of Chemistry, Higher Teacher Training College, The University of Bamenda, Bambili, CAMEROON
2Laboratory of Noxious Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, CAMEROON
3Laboratory of Soil Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, CAMEROON
4Department of Chemistry, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaounde 1, P.O. Box 47, Yaounde, CAMEROON
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: bulengyim@yahoo.com
Received: 09 November 2017; Revised received: 18 November 2017; Accepted: 25 November 2017

ABSTRACT
This research work was aimed to assess the quality of agricultural soils of Awing-North West Cameroon by elucidating some physicochemical properties and heavy metals in the soils. Agricultural yields in Awing have witnessed a decline in recent years and farmers have repeatedly used fertilizers to improve on their agricultural yields. It is thus important to test the soil in order to ensure not only high productivity but its quality as well and suggest methods to increase agricultural yields, while preventing soil and water pollution. Twenty soil samples were randomly collected from four sites, Achialum, Meupi, Nepele and Ala’amiti, in Awing and analysed for physicochemical and heavy metal properties using standard methods. Results showed that all the soils had low bulk densities (0.76-0.89 g cm-3), low pH values (4.1-6.0), low electrical conductivities (0.02 – 0.11 mS cm-1), low available phosphorus (1.55-14.26 mg kg-1) and the soil textural class was dominated by loam. The mean available concentrations of heavy metals ranged from 0.24-2.73, 0.64-5.13, 13.79-34.51, 29.45-92.27, 0.00-0.80, 0.24-4.54, 0.68-1.39, 0.30-0.47 mg kg-1 for Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd respectively. Results of heavy metal analysis showed that the soils were contaminated to different levels (above FAO/WHO limits) by the different heavy metals. Natural origins, fertilizer application and domestic waste were identified as the major sources of heavy metals in the soils. Future research should focus on the development of methods to quantify lime-enhanced mobilization of nutrient ions and lime-induced immobilization of heavy metals in these soils.

Keywords: Immobilization, Liming, Mobilization, Soil pH, Soil quality

Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis niloticus from a Tidal creek in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

Moslen1* and C.A. Miebaka2
1Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, NIGERIA
2Institute of pollution studies, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: moslen4c@yahoo.com
Received: 10 November 2017; Revised received: 20 November 2017; Accepted: 26 November 2017

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to assess the length-weight relationship (LWR) and condition factor (K) of Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis niloticus obtained from a tidal creek in the Niger Delta Nigeria. Six samples of each species were randomly collected monthly (January – December 2015) from fisher men making a total of 144 samples. Samples were immediately taken to the laboratory in ice pack coolers for analysis. The b-values ranged from 0.913-3.172 and 1.624-3.484 while K-values ranged from 0.79-1.07 and 1.01-1.08 for M. cephalus and O. niloticus respectively. The results indicated positive and negative allometric growth patterns (b>3 & b<3) for the two fish species, a departure from the cub law, but M. cephalus exhibited isometric growth pattern (b=3.003) during just one month of the study period, a compliance with the cube law. Growth coefficient also had obvious inter and intra specific variation while condition factor did not but indicated wellbeing of fish samples examined. The weight of both fish showed significant difference (P<0.01/ P<0.05) with respect to time while R2 values indicated strong linear relationship between length and weight. The study concluded that allometric growth pattern observed for the two fish species had both inter and intra specific variation along temporal lines. However, inter and intra specific condition of fish examined was relatively stable across study period suggesting the two different species could have responded to ecological and environmental variables similarly.

Keywords: Condition factor, Fish, Length-weight, Niger Delta, Tidal creek

Impacts of coal mine water and Damodar River water irrigation on soil and maize (Zea mays L.) in a coalfield area of Damodar Valley, India

Mukesh Kumar Mahato1*, Abhay Kumar Singh1, Gurdeep Singh2 and Lalan Prasad Mishra3
1Environmental Assessment and Remediation Section, CSIR- Central institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad-826015, (Jharkhand), INDIA
2Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, IIT (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad-826004, (Jharkhand), INDIA
3P.G. Department of Chemistry, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag-825301, (Jharkhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: catchmukesh8317@gmail.com
Received: 24 October 2017; Revised received: 10 November 2017; Accepted: 25 November 2017

ABSTRACT
The present investigation was carried out to assess the environmental and biochemical impacts due to irrigation of coal mine water and Damodar River water on Kharif crop, maize (Zea mays L.) in a coalfield area of Damodar Valley, India. Coal mine water and Damodar River water samples were collected for the monitoring of its quality from a coalfield area of Damodar Valley. The samples were analyzed for various parameters and compared with prescribed standard, which revealed that the total suspended solids of coal mine water were higher as Damodar River water. A pot experiment with Z. mays was conducted to study the suitability of this coal mine water for irrigation. The plants of Z. mays in the pots were irrigated with coal mine water and Damodar River water in two concentrations (100% and 50% dilution with double distilled water) and pure double distilled water was used for control. There was 100% germination of Z. mays in all the treatments. The plant growth, chlorophyll content of Z. mays and soil quality parameters were significantly better in coal mine water and Damodar River water treated pots. However, the Damodar River water and coal mine water could be successfully used for irrigation. In general, coal mine water and Damodar River water can be used after mixing with good quality of water has shown better growth of Z. mays.

Keywords: Coal mine water, Damodar River water, Irrigation Chlorophyll, Maize (Zea mays L.), Soil health

Nutrient characteristics assessment of two variants of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) found in Anambra State, Nigeria

C.V. Ilodibia1, U.A. Achebe2 and C. Chiafor1*
1Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B 5025, Awka, Anambra State, NIGERIA
2Department of Agricultural Education, Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: chinyereokafor206@yahoo.com
Received: 15 September 2017; Revised received: 06 October 2017; Accepted: 10 November 2017

ABSTRACT
Nutrient analysis was carried out on the leaves and fruits of two variants of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) namely: Clemson spineless and dwarf long green varieties of A. esculentus commonly found in Anambra State, Nigeria, to determine their nutritional data with regards to protein, carbohydrate, moisture, ash contents, crude fibre and crude fat contents of A. esculentus using standard analytical techniques. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance. The leaves and fruits of the two varieties of A. esculentus investigated were found to contain the examined nutrient in varying compositions. Carbohydrate and moisture were higher in the fruits of both varieties of A. esculentus (Clemson spineless and dwarf long green) when compared to the leaves (67.09±0.02 and 11.45±0.07), respectively. Ash content, protein, crude fat and crude fibre of A. esculentus were higher in the leaves of both varieties when compared to the fruits (9.10±0.14, 21.55±0.21, 5.33±0.18 and 18.68±0.04) of A. esculentus, respectively. Protein and ash of A. esculentus were higher in the leaves of Clemson spineless when compared to dwarf long green. Crude fat and crude fibre were higher in the leaves of dwarf long green when compared to Clemson spineless. This study has demonstrated that these varieties (Clemson spineless and dwarf long green) of A. esculentus examined are power house of nutrients and can contribute significantly to human health. The study revealed that the leaves of A. esculentus are more nutritious than fruits. It is concluded from the present study that nutritional trials of both varieties (Clemson spineless and dwarf long green) of okra could be an additional aid to the breeding improvement programme of A. esculentus.

Keywords: Breeding improvement programme, Nutrient analysis, Nutritional values, Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), Variants of okra (Clemson spineless and dwarf long green)

Interaction effect of seedling age and different doses of GA3 on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

Rumpa Sarker1*, Sasthi Pada Ray2, Juthika Paul3, Awfiqua Nusrat4 and Sharmila Rani Mallick5
1Scientific Officer, Spices Research Sub-Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Faridpur-7800, BANGLADESH
2Assistant Director, Bureau of Manpower, Employment and Training, Manikgonj-1800, BANGLADESH
3Agricultural Extension Officer, Department of Agriculture Extension, Dhaka-1207, BANGLADESH
4Lecturer, Agricultural College, Gazipur-1701, BANGLADESH
5Scientific Officer, Regional Pulse Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute Madaripur-7900, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: rumpakbds@gmail.com
Received: 08 October 2017; Revised received: 07 November 2017; Accepted: 14 November 2017

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted in the Horticultural Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207 during the period from October 2010 to March 2011 to find out the effect of GA3 and seedling age on the growth and yield of tomato. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The experiment consisted of four concentration of GA3 such as control G0 = no GA3, G1= 75 ppm GA3, G2 = 100 ppm GA3 and G3 =125 ppm GA3; three different seedling ages such as S1= 20 days, S2 = 25 days and S3 = 30 days old seedling. All parameter varied significantly at different concentration of GA3 in different DAT. The combined effect of G3S3 (125 ppm GA3 with 30 days old seedling) gave the maximum yield (90.28 t ha-1), on the other hand combined effect of G0S1 (no GA3 with 20 days old seedling) gave the minimum yield (59.83 t ha-1). The maximum yield (2.79 kg) plant-1 was recorded from treatment combination of G3S3 and the minimum yield (1.20 kg) was recorded from treatment combination G0S1. The maximum yield (32.47 kg) plot-1 was recorded from treatment combination G3S3 and the minimum yield (21.52 kg) plot-1 was recorded from treatment combination G0S1. The maximum yield (90.28 t ha-1) was recorded from treatment combination of G3S3 and the minimum yield (59.83 t ha-1) was recorded from treatment combination of G0S1. Therefore, 125 ppm GA3 with 30 days old seedling was found suitable combination for tomato production.

Keywords: GA3, Growth and yield, Interaction effect, Seeding age, Tomato

Effects of crossbreeding on fruits characteristics of two species of tomatoes (Solanum esculentum L. and Solanum pimpinellifolium L.)

C.V. Ilodibia1*, U.A. Achebe2, B.O. Aziagba1, N.F. Okeke2 and S.N. Udeorah2
1Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B 5025, Awka, Anambra State, NIGERIA
2Department of Agricultural Education, Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: chinyereokafor206@yahoo.com
Received: 01 November 2017; Revised received: 15 November 2017; Accepted: 25 November 2017

ABSTRACT
Solanum esculentum L. and Solanum pimpinellifolium L. (species of tomato) were crossbred to raise F1 so as to assess the effect of crossbreeding as a tool for tomato improvement as shown in yield. This was done by emasculating S. esculentum using it as female parent and transferring ripe pollen grains from S. pimpinellifolium the male parent using artificial means. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed in data analysis. Result showed that the parental plants and F1 hybrid differed significantly in fresh fruit weight, number of seeds per fruit, fruit colour, fruit width and fresh fruit length. F1 hybrid had the highest number of seeds per fruit when compared to the parental plants. S. esculentum recorded the highest fresh fruit weight, fruit width and fresh fruit length when compared to S. pimpinellifolium and F1 hybrid, though the F1 hybrid was statistically at par with S. esculentum in fresh fruit length. S. pimpinellifolium had the least fresh fruit weight, fruit width, number of seeds per fruit and fresh fruit length (1.80± 0.01, 8.03 ±1.0, 110.56 ± 0.01 and 4.00 ± 0.03, respectively). S. pimpinellifolium had a very dark red coloured fruits, followed by the F1 hybrid with dark red coloured fruits. S. esculentum had a light red coloured fruits based on the colour guide and the scale point used. The obtained data indicated that when two tomato plants of different but closely related varieties are crossbred, a new variety that combines the characters of the parental plants and enhanced genetic attributes is produced. F1 hybrid had the highest number of seeds per fruit and though had fruits smaller in size than S. esculentum but performed better than S. pimpinellifolium indicating that crossbreeding could be a tool for tomato improvement.

Keywords: Crossbreeding, Fruit characteristics, Hybrid vigour, Solanum esculentum, Solanum pimpinellifolium

Effectiveness of integrated weed management in five varieties of aromatic rice in Bangladesh

Md. Azhiat-Ul Huq Hia, A.K.M. Mominul Islam*, Shubroto Kumar Sarkar and Md. Parvez Anwar
Weed Management Laboratory, Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: akmmominulislam@bau.edu.bd
Received: 09 November 2017; Revised received: 16 November 2017; Accepted: 22 November 2017

ABSTRACT
An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to evaluate the efficacy, rice selectivity and cost-effectiveness of some integrated weed control methods on the productivity of aromatic rice under randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment consisted of five aromatic rice varieties; Kalijira, BRRI dhan34, BRRI dhan37, BRRI dhan38 and Binadhan-13, and six different weed management practices comprising no weeding, weed free, mechanical + manual weeding, pre–emergence herbicide + manual weeding, post–emergence herbicide + manual weeding, pre– + post–emergence herbicide. Ten weed species belonging to five families infested the experimental plots. Herbicide treatments provided excellent weed control efficiency and produced much higher net benefit and cost benefit ratio than weedy plot. Among the herbicidal and mechanical treatments, sequential application of Bensulfuran methyl + Acetachlor at early growth stage (pre-emergence herbicide) followed by Pyrazosulfuran ethyl at mid growth stage (post-emergence herbicide) provided the highest weed control efficiency, productivity and net benefit. Single application of Pyrazosulfuran ethyl at mid growth stage followed by one hand weeding performed very close to the pre– + post–emergence herbicide application in terms of productivity and net benefit but in terms of weed control efficiency at 45 days after transplanting application of Bensulfuran methyl + Acetachlor at early growth stage followed by one hand weeding performed very close to pre– + post–emergence herbicide application. Mechanical weeding followed by one hand weeding and application of Bensulfuran methyl + Acetachlor at early growth stage followed by one hand weeding also provided satisfactory results in terms of productivity and economic return. Since manual weeding was less economic, sequential application of pre- and post-emergence herbicides may be recommended for effective weed management in aromatic rice.

Keywords: Aromatic rice, Herbicide, Manual weeding, Weed management

Assessment of parasitic load in goat through the examination of faecal matter

Rajesh Kumar1*, B.P. Singh2 and S.S. Patil3
1Department of Veterinary Extension, Veterinary College, JAU, Junagadh-362001 (Gujarat), INDIA
2Division of Extension Education, ICAR- IVRI, Izatnagar-243122, Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
3Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, JAU, Junagadh-362001 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: rajeshvet30@gmail.com
Received: 17 August 2017; Revised received: 07 September 2017; Accepted: 06 October 2017

ABSTRACT
Parasitic infection do not show heavy rate of mortality, however there occurrence being chronic, most of the time leads to serious production losses, this led to study about severity of parasitic load and type of parasitic infection in goats. Parasitic infection most of the time leads to serious production losses. Gastrointestinal nematodes are ubiquitous parasites of grazing ruminants and cause decreases in survival, live weight gain, wool and milk production and reproduction performance. Parasitic problems are a serious problem in goat. Total 60 goat faecal samples were analyzed. These results would serve as a baseline for future studies. The majority of the faecal samples (70%) of both zone I and zone II had heavy parasitic load (>3000 epg) followed by 60 per cent samples of zone III. This indicates that majority of the goats of the study area had severe parasitic infection. Chi-square analysis revealed non-significant relation between parasitic load and categories of zones. Majority of samples (48.33%) were infected with the combination of Strongyles, Strongyloides and Coccidiosis. It can be concluded that faecal egg count level was severe in majority of the samples examined.

Keywords: Faecal matter, Gastrointestinal nematodes, Grazing ruminants, Goat, McMaster technique, Parasitic load

Impact of wastewater on nitrate concentrations in soil and vegetables grown along Kubanni River, Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria

S.O. Oladeji
Department of Polymer Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, NIGERIA
E-mail: saheedilori75@gmail.com
Received: 24 October 2017; Revised received: 05 November 2017; Accepted: 15 November 2017

ABSTRACT
The concentration of nitrate was evaluated in wastewater, soil and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okra) samples collected on seasonal basis from January, 2013 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed nitrate levels in wastewater were in the range of 23.05-283.54 mg/L for the year 2013 and 16.85-68.05 mg/L in the year 2014; soil had concentrations in the range of 2.20-20.50 mg/kg for 2013 and 7.27-29.57 mg/kg for the second year while the vegetable had concentrations in the range of 3.80-23.65 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 7.48-27.15 mg/Kg in year 2014. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in nitrate concentrations across the locations and seasons for wastewater, soil and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation results revealed negative (r = -0.263) relationship between nitrate levels in wastewater for year 2013 and year 2014, likewise negative (r = -0.217) relationship was obtained for vegetables planted in the year 2013 and 2014 whereas negligible (r = 0.137) relationship was recorded in the soil for these years. Nitrate concentrations obtained in this study was higher than maximum contaminant levels set by Standard Organization such as WHO and FAO for wastewater whereas the soil and vegetable of the sampling sites were not contaminated with nitrate ions.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, Kubanni River, Nitrate levels, Pearson product moment correlation, Vegetable, Wastewater

Effect of water and weed management in Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan28) in Bangladesh

Md. Abdur Rahman Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Paul* and Uttam Paul
Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: skpaull@gmail.com
Received: 19 September 2017; Revised received: 02 October 2017; Accepted: 16 October 2017

ABSTRACT
The experiment was conducted at the Farm of Farm Management Division, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during December 2012 to June 2013 to find out the effect of water and weed management in Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan28). The experiment consisted of three irrigation systems viz., conventional flood irrigation, Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and System of rice intensification (SRI) and four weed management practices viz., No weeding, hand weeding thrice at 20, 35 and 50 days after sowing, blade weeding + hand weeding once at 20 DAS; and pre-emergence herbicide (Panida 33 EC) @ 2.5 l ha-1 + hand weeding once at 20 DAS. Crop characters, yield components and yield were significantly influenced by water and weed managements, and their interaction. The highest plant height (91.51 cm), total tillers hill-1 (15.49), grains panicle-1 (86.87) and grain yield (4.02 t ha-1) were obtained in SRI method and corresponding lowest values were found in conventional flood irrigation while all parameters showed intermediate values in AWD. The highest plant height (93.45 cm), total tillers hill-1 (16.53), effective tillers hill-1 (12.88), grains panicle-1 (86.14), grain yield (5.47 t ha-1) and straw yield were found in pre-emergence herbicide (Panida 33 EC) @ 2.5 l ha-1 + one hand weeding at 20 DAS while all the parameters showed lowest values in weedy check. Weed infestation reduced 80.07% yield compared to application of pre-emergence herbicide (Panida 33 EC) @ 2.5 l ha-1 + one hand weeding at 20 DAS. In case of interaction, the highest total tillers hill-1 (20.93), grains panicle-1 (102.3) and grain yield (5.86 t ha-1) were found in SRI method with pre-emergence herbicide (Panida 33 EC) @ 2.5 l ha-1 + one hand weeding at 20 DAT while the lowest total tillers hill-1 (10.97), grains panicle-1 (61.46) and grain yield (0.91 t ha-1) were found in conventional flood irrigation having no weeding treatment. The above results concludes that SRI method with pre-emergence herbicide (Panida 33 EC) @ 2.5 l ha-1 + one hand weeding at 20 DAS appeared as the promising technique for appreciable grain yield of Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan28).

Keywords: Alternate wetting and drying (AWD), Boro rice, Direct wet seeding, SRI, Water management, Weed management 

Impact of climate change on yield of different crops grown in Cachar district of Assam, India

Diplina Paul, Laxmi N. Sethi*, Bhaskar J. Deka, Sudipto Sarkar and Avinash Kumar
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Assam University, Silchar-788011 (Assam), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: lnsethi06@gmail.com
Received: 14 November 2017; Revised received: 20 November 2017; Accepted: 26 November 2017

ABSTRACT
Impact of climate change on crop yield threatens food security which is detrimental to agricultural sector. Cachar district of Assam is a climate susceptible district due to its unique geographical location and hydrological regime in north-eastern India. So, the present study was carried out to assess impact of climate change on crop yield for sustainability of agriculture. Climatic data viz., rainfall, maximum-minimum temperature and sunshine hours were collected from an observatory of Tea Research Association, Silcoorie, Cachar district for 2007-2012. Statistical and correlation analysis was employed to evaluate potential climate change impact on productivity of twenty three major crops of the study site. The correlation coefficient (r, Pearson’s Product Moment) between any climatic parameter and crop yield implied that climate has strong linear correlation with yield of crops resulting in twenty-two strong correlations. Among the climatic parameters rainfall was found to have most significant impact on yield. Noteworthy reduction was observed in yield of Autumn Paddy and Winter Paddy by 8.75 and 20.44 during the year 2008-2009 due to 3.98 and 36.22% decrease of rainfall with r values 0.95 and -0.76, respectively. Also, a quantum leap of 145.32% increase of rainfall during Rabi season of 2007-2008 decreased the yield of Potato and Rabi vegetables by 22.96 and 16.89%, respectively. The study revealed that climate change has significant impact on crop yield which could be alleviated by adopting rainwater harvesting technology at the top and foot hills of the hilly areas.

Keywords: Agriculture, Cachar, Climate change, Correlation, Crop yield, Growing seasons, Statistical analysis

A review of ecological agricultural practices as an important component of climate resilient management

E.B. Utobo1 and M. Esakkimuthu2*
1Department of Environmental Science, College of Basic Science and Humanities, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Agricultural Extension, Kerala Agricultural University, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Pilicode- 671310 (Kerala), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: esakkimuthu418@yahoo.com
Received: 28 September 2017; Revised received: 16 October 2017; Accepted: 02 November 2017

ABSTRACT
The pressing need to systematically redirect agricultural practices, towards sustainable, biodiversity based eco-agriculture and the basic agro-ecological principles cannot be overemphasized, especially in this era of threat to food and livelihood security caused by climate change in several developing countries of the world is evident. This is on account that the ecological aspect of agricultural production, which is resilient to climate and productive is based on principles that create biological diversity and build healthy soils, which also prioritizes indigenous and farmers’ knowledge. Ecological agricultural techniques are the foundations for the adaptation strategies needed urgently by the farmers in various developing countries, who will suffer greater from the climate change effects. Many answers lie in farmers’ farms and knowledge. Thus, this review is focused on how to improve the biodiversity of the agricultural system, build better healthy soils that will be drought tolerant and also to add social resilience required to face the increased uncertainty in weather patterns.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Climate change, Developing countries, Ecological agriculture, Sustainability

A review on sewage sludge (Biosolids) a resource for sustainable agriculture

Vinod Kumar1*, A.K. Chopra1 and Ajendra Kumar2
1Agro-ecology and Pollution Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalyaya, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalyaya, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: drvksorwal@gkv.ac.in
Received: 11 August 2017; Revised received: 16 October 2017; Accepted: 12 November 2017

ABSTRACT
Sewage sludge (Biosolids) generation is fastly increasing resulting from the regular increase of population, urban planning and industrial developments worldwide. The sludge needs to be adequately treated and environmentally managed to reduce the negative impacts of its application or disposal. The present review deals with the different applications of sewage sludge for sustainable agriculture. The scattered literature is harnessed to critically review the uses of biosolids to promote sustainable practices focusing on the productive uses of sewage sludge or biosolids. Biosolids or sewage sludge is the byproduct of municipal wastewater, sewage effluent and effluent treatment plants. The treatment plants are generating huge amount of biosolids. The present review focuses on the different applications of biosolids or sewage sludge as in many countries the biosolids or sewage sludge are frequently using for various purposes like for biogas production, land filling, organic fertilizer, soil amendment, and to enhance the crop yield of agricultural crops. Therefore, biosolids or sewage sludge is in the consideration as a resource worldwide. Besides this higher content of different heavy metals and microorganisms are the important constraints for the application of biosolids or sewage sludge in the various fields. Thus, this review emphasizes the different applications and possible limitations for the use of biosolids or sewage sludge as a resource. Efforts have been made on the possible pretreatment of biosolids or sewage sludge to make it more feasible for their applications. Therefore, different properties of biosolids or sewage sludge, their applications along with possible limitations have been discussed in the present review to formulate the biosolids or sewage sludge as a resource for the sustainable development.

Keywords: Agricultural uses, Biosolids, Biogas, Organic fertilizer, Sewage sludge, Soil amendment, Sustainable development

Phyto-adsorption treatment of paper mill effluent using leaf powder of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms

Akshay Kumar, Roushan K. Thakur, Jogendra Singh, A.K. Chopra and Vinod Kumar*
Agro-ecology and Pollution Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), India
*Correspondence author’s E-mail: drvksorwal@gmail.com
Received: 20 September 2017; Revised received: 28 October 2017; Accepted: 26 November 2017

ABSTRACT
In this present study, an experiment was performed to find the potential of leaf powder of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in treating paper mill effluent. During the study the value of different parameters viz., pH (5.80±0.10), TDS (980.22±12.52 mgL-1), EC (6.52±0.11 dS m-1), BOD (86.42±4.61 mgL-1), COD (281.01±8.66 mgL-1), PO43- (71.46±6.00 mgL-1), TKN (84.99±3.92 mgL-1), Na (136.94±6.66 mgL-1), K (95.01±3.48 mgL-1) and total hardness (442.39±3.78 mgL-1) of paper mill effluent were recorded higher before bio-adsorption treatment using leaf powder of E. crassipes. The leaf powder of E. crassipes significantly (P<0.05/P<0.01) removed TDS, EC, BOD, COD, TKN, Na, K and total hardness of the paper mill effluent. The result of the present study on the  bio-adsorption treatment using leaf powder of E. crassipes of paper mill effluent showed maximum reduction in the effluent characteristics viz., pH (6.62±0.08), TDS (848.42±7.67 mgL-1), EC (4.08±0.17 dS m-1), BOD (62.56±3.39 mgL-1), COD (218.11±8.59 mgL-1), PO43- (50.13±4.33 mgL-1), TKN (63.04±6.47 mgL-1), Na (100.06±6.99 mgL-1), K (66.00±7.38 mgL-1) and total hardness (347±9.86 mgL-1) of paper mill effluent after bio-adsorption treatment using leaf powder of E. crassipes. The maximum removal of TDS (13.45%), EC (37.43%), BOD (25.89%), COD (22.38%), PO43- (29.85%), TKN (25.83%), Na (26.94%), K (30.54%) and Total hardness (21.56%) in the paper mill effluent were recovered after phyto-adsorption treatment using leaf powder of E. crassipes. The decrease of paper mill effluent parameter is likely due to that the leaf powder of water hyacinth absorbs the nutrient from the effluent. Therefore, the leaf powder of can be used as phyto-adsorbent for the removal of various pollution parameters.

Keywords: Paper mill effluent, Phyto-adsorbent, Removal efficiency, Treatment, Water hyacinth

Evaluation of antagonistic activities of Bacillus spp. against certain bacteria of medical importance

Kartikey Kumar Gupta and Deepanshu Rana*
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalyaya, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: rana.deepu91@gmail.com
Received: 25 September 2017; Revised received: 28 October 2017; Accepted: 15 November 2017

ABSTRACT
In this work we focused on the antagonistic potential of Bacillus spp. isolates from cow dung. Out of fourteen bacterial strains, isolate KD104 and KD117 were probably identified as Bacillus spp. These two isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against 14 test organisms viz., Vibrio Cholera (MTCC 3904), Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216), Escherichia coli (SGPGI), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 7443), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 6728), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC 426), Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), Escherichria coli (MTCC 118), Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1457), Salmonella typhimurium (MTCC 3231), Streptoccus pyogenes (MTCC 442) and Staphylocccus aureus (MTCC 3160) using cross-streak method. The preliminary screening revealed significant antimicrobial effect of both isolates against Vibrio Cholera (MTCC 3904), Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216), Escherichia coli (SGPGI), and Bacillus cereus (MTCC 6728). Therefore, this study indicates that these Bacillus species may be up-hold to industrial level for production of antimicrobial agent, which should be further analyzed for its possibility to be used as therapeutic agent.

Keywords: Antagonistic activity, Bacillus spp., Cross-streak method, Cow dung

Spatial distribution of solid waste disposal sites in Allahabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India using GIS approach

Nitin Kamboj* and Neeraj Pandey
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalyaya, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: kambojgurukul@gmail.com
Received: 22 September 2017; Revised received: 27 October 2017; Accepted: 24 November 2017

ABSTRACT
The present investigation was conducted to study the spatial distribution of solid waste disposal sites in Allahabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India using GIS approach. In this investigation site determination for the transfer of strong waste is performed utilizing geographical information system (GIS), the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and remote detecting strategies for the Allahabad city. In GIS, every single possible prerequisite are at first indicated, spatial information coordinated and overlaid and in view of the last yield got appropriate naturally kindhearted destinations for squander transfer are recognized. Analytical hierarchy process give a deliberate way to deal with evaluating and incorporating the effects of different variables, including a few levels for surveying and coordinating the effects of different components, including a few levels dependent and free, qualitative and quantitative data. Remote Sensing pictures and Survey of India topomaps were utilized to extricate data on badlands and other lands utilize highlights, geography, hydro-geomorphology, seepage, street systems and slant of the region. Various tools and software’s were used for the study like Arc GIS 10.1 LIS III image, SRTM DATA, ERDAS imagine etc. The results of the present study indicated that maps of land use cover/land use change/ satellite imageries and GIS tool were benefited for characterizing appropriate plans and methodologies for effective solid waste management plan in metropolitan cities. Therefore, GIS tools, satellite imageries, maps must be considered for the implementation of solid waste management policies.

Keywords: Geographic information system, Remote Sensing, Solid waste management

Effects of shade level and microenvironment on vegetative growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of transplanted cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

Wael M. Semida*, Mohamed S. Ammar and Nevein A. El-Sawah
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 63514-Fayoum, EGYPT
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: wms00@fayoum.edu.eg
Received: 30 September 2017; Revised received: 05 October 2017; Accepted: 28 November 2017

ABSTRACT
Growing vegetables through transplantation under black shade nets is currently becoming popular to provide protection from high intensities of light and high temperatures. This study evaluated the effects of shade level on microenvironment, vegetative growth, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence, osmoprotectants, plant water status and leaf mineral nutrients of greenhouse-grown summer cucumber transplants at 25%, 50%, 63%, and 75% shade levels. Solar radiation and tempera-ture decreased with increased shading levels. Average daily temperatures were approximately decreased by 1.5oC under 75% shade nets compared to the 25% shade nets. Vegetative growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, and PI), dehydration tolerance and Leaf N, P and K concentrations increased when shade level increased. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, and PI) reduced with the increase of solar radiation levels. Also, clear decreases in free proline, soluble sugars and total free amino acids in both experiments with increased shade level have been observed. Additionally, relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) and electrolyte leakage (EL) of cucumber transplants were significantly affected in both experiments by shade level. Moreover Shade level affected leaf mineral nutrient but the effect differed among nutrients concentration. This study concluded that, nets with higher shading levels (63 and/or 75%) are a potential alternative to alleviate photo-inhibition and heat stress in cucumber transplants production.

Keywords: Cucumber transplants, Dehydration tolerance, Microenvironment, Shading nets