- Effect of planting method on onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb production in Faridpur region of Bangladesh
- Gene action studies in early maturing maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines
- Use of double-hurdle model to crop residues usage among farming households in Argungu Local Government Area, Kebbi State, Nigeria
- Growth and yield of amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) as influenced by seed rate and variety in Sokoto, Nigeria
- Effects of integrated nutrient management on agronomical attributes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) under field conditions
- Evaluation of physical and chemical properties of some selected soils in mangrove swamp zones of Delta State, Nigeria
- Transcriptional activator gene based phylogenetic analysis of dolichos yellow mosaic virus infecting lablab bean (Dolichos lablab L.)
- Importance of weather prediction for sustainable agriculture in Bihar, India
- Taxonomic significance of stem and petiole anatomy of three white varieties of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.
- Occurrence and floral details of four new invasive alien species in Uttarakhand, India
- Occurrence of heavy metals in Ganga canal water at Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India: A case study
- Climatic fluctuations in Uttarakhand Himalayan region and resulting impacts: A review
- Breeding climate change resilient maize and wheat for food security
Effect of planting method on onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb production in Faridpur region of Bangladesh
Sarker 1*, M. Ratna2, S. Ray3, A .H. F. Fahim4 and M.J.Tithi5
1Scientific Officer (Horticulture), Spices Research Sub-centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Faridpur-7800, BANGLADESH
2Scientific Officer (Plant Breeding), Spices Research Sub-centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Faridpur-7800, BANGLADESH
3Assistant Director (Entomology), Bureau of Manpower, Employment and Training, Manikgonj-1800, BANGLADESH
4Scientific Officer (Agronomy), Spices Research Centre, BARI, Shibganj, Bogra-5810, BANGLADESH
5Agriculture Extension Officer (Plant Breeding), Department of Agriculture Extension, Dhaka-1207, BANGLADESH
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: email@example.com
Received: 20 April 2017; Revised received: 22 May 2017; Accepted: 25 May 2017
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effective planting method for onion production for motivating onion producing farmers in Faridpur region of Bangladesh during rabi season 2014-15 and 2015-16 at spices Research Sub-centre, Faridpur. The number of treatment was four viz., Raised bed + Spices Research Centre (SRC) recommended practice, Raised bed + Farmer’s practice, Flat method + Spices Research Centre (SRC) recommended practice and Flat method + Farmer’s practice. The onion variety BARI Piaz-1 used as planting material. The SRC recommended practice consist of seed sowing at 2nd week of November + seedlings transplanting at the end of December + Spacing (10cm × 10cm) + Irrigation (4times) + weeding (four at 15, 25, 45 and 60 DAT) + Fungi-cide application with Rovral and Ridomil gold (four spray when disease appears) + Insecticide application (2-3 spray when/before thrips / insect appears) + Fertilizer doses (cow dung 5 ton ha-1, N120, P54, k75 and S20 kg ha-1. On the other hand farmer’s practice consist of seed sowing at last week of November in flat seed bed + seedling transplanting at 3rd week of January + Spacing (10cm × 7cm) + Irrigation (2-3 times) + Weeding (2times) + Fungicide application with Rovral, Score and other type of ineffective fungicide at 5-7 days interval + insecticide application with Confidor after thrips / insect appears + Fertilizer doses (N46, P45, k30 and S16 kg ha-1. The results of the study revealed that planting method and management practices had significant impact on yield and yield attributes of onion and among the treatments the highest yield was found from Raised bed + SRC recommended practice. Significantly highest yield 14.42 t ha-1 in 2014-15 and 12.57 t ha-1 in 2015-16 was recorded from SRC recommended practice. The lowest yield 8.05 t ha-1 in 2014-15 and 7.66 t ha-1 in 2015-16 was recorded from Flat method + Farmer’s practice. Therefore, the farmers of Faridpur region of Bangladesh are advised to adopt SRC recommended practice with raised bed method for increasing their annual average onion production
Gene action studies in early maturing maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines
Z.A. Dar1,2, A.A. Lone, G. Ali, I. Abidi, R.A. Lone, S. Gulzar and N. Yousuf
1Dryland (Karewa) Agricultural Research Station, Budgam, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir-190001 (J & K), INDIA
2Division of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir –190001 (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 02 May 2017; Accepted: 28 May 2017
The present investigation was aimed to investigate the gene action in early maturing maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines. The experimental material comprised of 30 crosses generated by crossing six maize inbred lines in a diallel mating design during Kharif 2013. These 30 crosses along with standard checks viz., SMH-2 and VMH-45 were evaluated in randomized block design in three replications during Kharif 2014 and Kharif 2015. Significant variation was observed for all studied traits during both the seasons. Both additive (D) and dominance (H1 and H2) components of genetic variance were found significant under the study. Preponderance of non-additive gene action was observed for all traits under study. Average degree of dominance was in over dominance range for all characters. The gene distribution was asymmetrical for all traits. The value of KD / KR indicated presence of excess of dominant genes for all traits except 100-grain weight and ear girth. Heritability of most of the traits was low to medium.
Use of double-hurdle model to crop residues usage among farming households in Argungu Local Government Area, Kebbi State, Nigeria
M.S.M. Jabo and A. Gado
Department of Agricultural Economics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto P.M.B 2346, Sokoto, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: email@example.com
Received: 15 March 2017; Revised received: 13 April 2017; Accepted: 02 May 2017
The objective of this research is to examine the crop residues use and its determinants in Argungu Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. A cross sectional data from 120 households select-ed through a multistage and simple random sampling techniques. This research is timely given the fact that, Nigerian Government is now shifting emphasis from oil-based to agricultural diversified economy. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and double hurdle. Such an approach has never been previously been applied to analyze crop residue usage in the study area and the state at large. The descriptive statistics shows that, farmers preferred using crop residue for feeding (44.1%) than any other purpose. Other important and competing uses of crop residue in-cluded stall feeding, fire wood, house construction and mulching. The intensity of legume crop residue was positively and statistically influenced by household education, land ownership, exten-sion service and access to credit. However, the intensity to use cereal crop residues was positively influenced by household education, extension service and access to electricity (p-0.05). The study concludes crop residues were mainly used for own animal feeding in the area. Extension contact to farm families, socio-economic variable (educational attainment, access to credit) and quantity of crop residues influenced both the decision and intensity of CRs usage in the study area.
Growth and yield of amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) as influenced by seed rate and variety in Sokoto, Nigeria
M.B. Sokoto* and O.I. Johnbosco
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 07 March 2017; Revised received: 08 April 2017; Accepted: 02 May 2017
This experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Vegetable Garden of the Department of Crop Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto during the rainy season of the year 2016. The objective of the research was to determine the effect of seed rate and variety on the growth and yield of Amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) in Sokoto. The treatment consists of factorial combination of four (4) seed rates (2.0 kg ha-1, 2.5 kg ha-1, 3.0 kg ha-1 and 3.5 kg ha-1) and two (2) varieties Ex-Egypt (‘‘DAN EGYPT”) and Ex-Kano “DAN KANO’’. The result indicated that seed rate had no significant effect on plant height of amaranths at 2 Weeks after Planting (WAP). However, at 4, 6 and 8 WAP, seed rate significantly (p<0.05) affected plant height. Seed rate at 3.0 kg ha-1 resulted to significantly taller plants which did not differ significantly from 3.5 kg ha-1 and 2.5 kg ha-1. The shortest plant was from 2.0 kg ha-1. The effect of seed rate and variety on number of leaves is not significant (P>0.05) at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WAP. The result also showed that seed rate had significant (P-0.05) effect on fresh and dry weight of amaranths at harvest; seed rate of 3.5 kg ha-1did not differed significantly from seed rate at 3.0 kg ha-1 and 2.5 kg ha-1, while seed rate at 2.0 kg ha-1 recording the lowest fresh and dry weight of amaranths. Seed rate at 2.5 kg ha-1 and any of the two varieties, Ex-Egypt (DAN EGYPT) or Ex-Kano “DAN KANO’’ would be beneficial for the farmers in Sokoto State and areas with similar environmental conditions.
Effects of integrated nutrient management on agronomical attributes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) under field conditions
A.K. Chopra3, Temin Payum1, Sachin Srivastava2 and Vinod Kumar3*
1Department of Botany, Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat-791103 (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA
2Department of Agriculture and Forestry, Uttaranchal College of Science and Technology, Dehradun-248001 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
3Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: 20 March 2017; Revised received: 10 April 2017; Accepted: 10 May 2017
In this investigation the effects of different integrated nutrient management on agronomical attrib-utes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. F1 Hybrid Arka Rakshak) under field conditions were investigated. Ten nutrients treatments viz., without nutrient (control) (T1), recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) (T2), agro residue vermicompost (ARV) @ 5 t ha-1 (T3), sugarcane pressmud compost (SPC) @ 5 t ha-1 (T4), cattle dung compost (CDC) @ 12.5 t ha-1 (T5), sewage sludge (SS) @ 2 t ha-1 (T6), T7 (50 % RDF + ARV @ 5 t ha-1), T8 (50 % RDF + SPC @ 5 t ha-1), T9 (50 % RDF + CDC @ 12.5 t ha-1) and T10 (50% RDF + SS @ 2 t ha-1) were used for the cultivation of L. esculentum. The results showed that different treatments showed significant (P-0.05/P-0.01) change in EC, OC, TKN, PO43-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn of the soil. Among various treatments the most plant height, root length, dry weight, chlorophyll content, LAI, number of flowers/plant, fruits/plant, crop yield/plant, and biochemical ingredient like crude protein, dietary fiber, total carbohydrates and total sugar of L. esculentum was recorded with 50% RDF + ARV @ 5 t ha-1. The agronomical performance of L. esculentum was recorded in the order of T7 > T10 > T9 > T8 > T3 > T6 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 treatments. Thus, sole ARV and 50% RDF along with ARV @ 5 t ha-1 can be used to achieve the maximum crop yield of L. esculentum.
Evaluation of physical and chemical properties of some selected soils in mangrove swamp zones of Delta State, Nigeria
C. Umeri, R.C. Onyemekonwu* and H. Moseri
Department of Agricultural Science Education, College of Education, Agbor, Delta State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 22 April 2017; Revised received: 20 May 2017; Accepted: 25 May 2017
In the present investigation the analysis of physical and chemical properties of some selected soils of mangrove swamp in Delta State (Latitude 50 and 60 and 30’ North and longitude 50 and 60, 45’ east) were determined. Hence, representative soil samples were obtained from three locations viz., Koko, Ozoro, Warri (Mangrove swamp) at 0-15cm and 15-30cm depths. The soil samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties viz., soil texture (Sand, silt and clay), pH, EC, total organic carbon, available P, Na, K, Mg, Ca+, exchangeable acidity (Al3+, H+), ECEC, OM, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu and Mn at different study sites. The soil texture of the studied soil samples were primarily recorded as sand and loamy sand, with sandy texture at different study sites. The soils had a pH range of 5.65 to 6.40 at the surface, and were marginal in organic carbon, total nitrogen; exchangeable Ca, Mg, and ECEC, Zn, Fe, Cu whereas the contents of Mn were recorded to be adequate based on the recognized critical levels for the different nutrients. The potassium levels were found to be deficient in the soils. The pH of the soil showed a significant and positive correlation with K(r = +0.35) and Pb (r = +0.43). Total N positively correlated with the organic carbon (r = +0.92) and Fe (r = +0.63). The soils of the study area were mainly sandy loam indicat-ing that the soils will support arable crop production. From the results of the present study it is recommended that the phosphorus and exchangeable potassium should be artificially supplemented to enhance the nutrients in the soil required for the growth and yield of the crop plants.
Transcriptional activator gene based phylogenetic analysis of dolichos yellow mosaic virus infecting lablab bean (Dolichos lablabL.)
Sonam Arya1, Rajat Chaudhary1, Vaishali1, S.K. Awasthi2
1Department of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
2Department of Life Sciences, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur-208024 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: 01 May 2017; Revised received: 22 May 2017; Accepted: 26 May 2017
Lablab bean (Dolichos lablab L.) is one the important crop, cultivated as vegetable, pulses as it is rich in protein. It is affected from viral disease i.e. dolichos yellow mosaic virus. The causative agent is begomovirus belongs to geminivirus family. Begomovirus contain bipartite genome having two type of DNA-A and DNA-B. DNA- A helps in replication and DNA-B helps in movement. These DNA have six different type of gene coat protein gene, transcriptional activator gene, replica-tion associated gene, replication enhancer gene, pre coat protein involved in different function associated with it. The present investigation was carried out to investigate the transcriptional activa-tor gene based phylogenetic analysis of Dolichos yellow mosaic virus infecting D. lablab. This study is based on the transcriptional activator gene which is used in transactivation of genes, contains three conserved domains: a basic domain at N-Terminus, a central DNA binding domain and activator domain. The genome databases of dolichos yellow mosaic virus were taken from NCBI site total six genome was available and were used with Clustal W and CLC BIO were the bioinformatic tools for determining sequence homology among genome present in different geographical location. The absence of functional specificity suggests that all begomovirus contains a common element interacts with cellular proteins of other viruses reveals the phylogenetic analysis with the other species Dolichos in the different geographical location.
Importance of weather prediction for sustainable agriculture in Bihar, India
Vikram Kumar1*, Shaktibala2, Shanu Khan3
1Department of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee- 247667 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Civil Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota- 324010 (Rajasthan), INDIA
3Department of Electrical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur-302017 (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 22 April 2017; Revised received: 18 May 2017; Accepted: 26 May 2017
The current study deals with the climate variability leads to economic and food security risks in Bihar state of India and rest of other part also due to its significant influences on agriculture. In the Bihar state, where agriculture is underachieve because of monsoon dependence and out of the 100 percent only 30 percent is fed by canal water. Climate is changing and its effects on agriculture are uncertain, and to get maximize output and to improving their livelihood within the major constraint, there is need for accurate weather forecast and information. Due to this the dependency of the agriculture sector on monsoon correlates accurate weather forecasts with high demand. The key factor in all agriculture policy is the weather forecasting information which involves enhancing farm risk management. The analysis showed that a 75% accuracy of agro-meteorological infor-mation is necessary for the agro-meteorological information to be worthwhile. However, challenges are there to the uncertainty of climate forecasts and to the complexities of agricultural systems. If better predictions of climate were available three to six months ahead of time, it may be possible to modify decisions to decrease unwanted impacts and to take advantage of expected favourable conditions. Also farmer is better geared to decide about his choice on crop management including appropriate time for sowing, wedding, and harvesting and fertiliser application.
Taxonomic significance of stem and petiole anatomy of three white varieties of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.
Aziagba Bibian Okwuchukwu1* and Okeke Clement Uwabukeonye1
1Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: 09 March 2017; Revised received: 10 April 2017; Accepted: 02 May 2017
Anatomical studies were carried out on the stem and petiole of three white varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.) belonging to the family Fabaceae consumed in Awka Anambra State Nigeria. The structures of the stem and the petiole showed the basic structure of a dicotyledonous plant. The transverse section of the stem and petiole consists of epidermal and collenchyma layers, parenchyma cells and stele (vascular bundles, secretory cells and pith); however there were differ-ences in shape and position of the vascular bundles. In the stem, this bundles are located on a continuous ring but in the petiole are cutting and divided into two large adaxial and three abaxial bundles forming main foliar trace, which above it lie laterally a pair of secondary bundles. The relationships found in this study provide insights to the phylogeny of the species and revealed the importance of combined data from different taxonomic evidences to have clearer information on varietal relationships to enhance the delimitation of Vigna species.
Occurrence and floral details of four new invasive alien species in Uttarakhand, India
Sumita Rana* and Jyotsna Rastogi
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 21 May 2017; Accepted: 02 June 2017
The present paper deals with the communication of four new species which are addition to the old reported species out of these 91 species which were studied. Four new invasive alien species (IAS) are Acmella radicans (Jacq. R.K. Jansen), Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Euphorbia cyathophora Murray and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. was recorded as new elements in IAS flora of Uttarakhand. The study is conducted during 2011- 2015 to compile a comprehensive list of Invasive alien species. A total of 91 Invasive Alien Species were collected from the different areas of Pantnagar. These 91 IAS belonged to 70 genera under 30 families. Dicotyledons were representing by 82 species belonging to 63 genera under 25 families, whereas monocotyledons were represented by 9 species belonging to 7 genera under 5 families. The taxonomic analysis of IAS revealed dominance of Asteraceae with 16 species in 14 genera followed by Amaranthaceae with 10 species in 7 genera, Fabaceae with 8 species in 6 genera, Malvaceae with 7 species in 6 genera, Convovlvulaceae with 7 species in 3 genera, Solanace-ae with 6 species in 4 genera, Poaceae with 4 species in 3 genera and Euphorbiaceae with 4 species in 2 genera. Results of this study clearly indicate presence of 52.60% of IAS flora of India and 55.82% of IAS flora Uttarakhand in such a small area of Pantnagar. Eradication of these species is impractical and costly; however, their population needs regular monitoring and any new introduction need eradication as early as possible.
Occurrence of heavy metals in Ganga canal water at Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India: A case study
Nitin Kamboj1*, Ravinder Singh Aswal1 and Prashant Singh2
1Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Chemistry, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Dehradun-248001 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: email@example.com
Received: 03 March 2017; Revised received: 25 April 2017; Accepted: 27 May 2017
The present investigation was framed to assess the contamination of heavy metals in Ganga canal water at Haridwar (Uttarakhand). The samples of Ganga canal water were collected from five sampling sites namely Bhimgoda Barrage, Haridwar (origin point); Premnagar Ashram Ghat, Haridwar; Pathari Power Plant, Bahadrabad; Rail Bridge, Roorkee and Uttam Sugar Mills Limited, Narsan (exit point). The samples were analyzed for seven metals viz., copper, manganese, cadmium, lead, zinc, chromium and iron in Ganga canal water monthly during March, 2014 to August, 2014. The concentration of manganese was found greater than its desirable limit (0.1 mg/L), while iron was observed more than its permissible limit (0.3 mg/L) according to Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) specifications. The water quality data was further analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for monthly and spatial variations. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the contents of different metals such as copper, manganese, lead, zinc, chromium and iron were found statistically significant (P≤0.05) as per temporal study. These monthly variations in Ganga Canal water quality parameters might be ascribed due to the anthropogenic and hydro-geological activities. However, none of the metals showed significant site variation at any of the sampling site of Ganga Canal. Therefore, the present study emphasized the need of regular monitoring of Ganga canal water to avoid the contamination of heavy metals in the water.
Climatic fluctuations in Uttarakhand Himalayan region and resulting impacts: A review
Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, THDC Institute of Hydropower Engineering and Technology, (Constituent Institute of Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun), Bhagirthipuram, Tehri Garhwal- 249001 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
Received: 02 May 2017, Revised received: 25 May 2017, Accepted: 28 May 2017
The Himalayan Mountains are the stock of precious biodiversity and water, and providers of ecosystem goods and services on which local communities depend. These “clean” regions are becoming victims of transport of atmospheric pollutants and climate-altering substances. Uttarak-hand state has become victim of several catastrophic events such as Cloud bursts, landslides and Floods in past few years. The young Himalaya is facing worse calamities with every passing year. The devastation in Uttarakhand in June, 2013 showed that some of the effects of climate change are already upon us. Flash floods in Uttarakhand were inevitable, given the record rainfall. But their strength was multiplied by glacial lake outbursts. And the effects were worsened many times by ill-planned development. It ought to serve as a wake-up call to desist from a development model that upsets fragile ecosystems on a large scale and impoverishes people who are already highly vulnerable to a wide range of social and economic problems. The economy of the mountain com-munities of Uttarakhand is largely dependent on its natural resource base and climate-sensitive livelihoods like subsistence agriculture, and forestry. However, the impacts of climate change are visible in mid- and high- altitude regions in the shape of changes in ecosystems and changes in seasons. These changes have both positive and negative effects on resource-based livelihoods. There is a need to identify the changes that are currently visible in the mountain regions, analyze them and help the local communities to adapt to them.
Breeding climate change resilient maize and wheat for food security
Asima Gazal, Z.A. Dar1,2, A.A.Lone1 and M. Habib
1Dryland (Karewa) Agricultural Research Station, Budgam, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir-190001 (J & K), INDIA
2Division of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir -190001 (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 02 May 2017; Accepted: 27 May 2017
Climate change is affecting agriculture directly or indirectly, worldwide and is an important challenge that threatens the long-term production growth of cereals. Fluctuating temperature, green-house gases, rainfall, and high humidity directly affect the crops, pathogens, insects, and weeds. Several new diseases, weeds, and insect pests have started appearing with the changing climate. Maize and wheat are the two of the most important food crops worldwide with too are getting affected. Predictions suggest that climate change will reduce maize and wheat production this will coincide with a substantial increase in demand for maize and wheat due to rising populations. Maize and wheat research has a crucial role to play in enhancing adaptation to and mitigation of climate change while also enhancing food security. The varieties of agricultural crops with increased tolerance to heat and drought stress and resistance to pests and diseases are serious for handling existing climatic variability and for adaptation to progressive climate change. Numerous climate resilient agricultural technologies such as zero tillage (no tillage), laser land leveling, happy seeder, raised-bed planting, tensiometer, and rotavator have been invented for the conservation of agricul-ture. Further, drip irrigation and fertigation, leaf color chart (LCC) for need-based application of nitrogen, integrated nutrient management (INM) systems, integrated pest management (IPM) systems, integrated disease management (IDM) systems, site-specific management systems using remote sensing, GPS, and GIS, and Web-based decision support systems for controlling diseases and insect pests are being commercialized to mitigate the climate change.