Volume 2 Issue 1

Variations of growth parameters in transplanted Aman rice (cv. BRRI dhan39) in response to plant spacing and fertilizer management

Jahan, M.A.R. Sarkar and S.K. Paul*
Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh- 2202, BANGLADESH
Corresponding author’s E-mail: skpaull@gmail.com
Received: 09, March 2017; Revised received: 15, March 2017; Accepted: 16, March 2017


The experiments were carried out at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural
University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during June to December 2015 to investigate the effect of spacing and fertilizer management on the growth parameters of transplant Aman rice cv. BRRI dhan39. The experiment comprised of five spacing’s viz. 25 cm × 5 cm, 25 cm × 10 cm, 25 cm × 15 cm, 25 cm × 20 cm, 25 cm × 25 cm, and four fertilizer treatments viz. no manure and no fertilizer (control), recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (80-60-40 kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1,respectively + 60 kg ha-1 gypsum + 10 kg ha-1 ZnSO4), 75% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + cow dung at 5 t ha-1,75% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha-1. The highest and lowest plant height was found in spacing 25 cm × 15 cm, and 25 cm × 5 cm, respectively at all dates of observations. Spacing 25 cm × 15 cm, produced the highest number of tillers hill-1 at 80 DAT. Leaf area index (LAI) and total dry matter (TDM) hill-1 were the highest in 25 cm × 15 cm spacing and lowest in 25 cm × 5 cm spacing. The highest plant height, LAI and total TDM hill-1 were recorded in 75% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + cow dung at 5 t ha-1 and the lowest values were observed in control treatment. In case of interaction, the highest number of tillers hill-1, leaf area index and total dry matter hill-1 were obtained in spacing 25 cm × 15 cm fertilized with 75% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + cow dung at 5 t ha-1.Therefore, 25 cm × 15 cm spacing combined with 75% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + cow dung at 5 t ha-1 appeared as the promising practice in transplant Aman rice cv. BRRI dhan39 cultivation in terms of growth parameters.

Keywords: Fertilizer management, Growth, Spacing, Transplanted Aman rice
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Fish productivity: Assessing sustainability in a tropical oxbow lake of Nadia

district, West Bengal, India

Dipankar Ghosh and Jayanta Kumar Biswas*
Department of Ecological Studies, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: biswajoy2000@yahoo.com
Received: 18, February 2017; Revised received: 23, February 2017; Accepted: 08, March 2017

Fish productivity in oxbow lake is impacted severely due to varied unsustainable anthropogenic practices like over exploitation, indiscriminate use of fine meshed fishing gears, jute retting etc. This particular study was conducted in a semi closed oxbow lake ecosystem in eastern India to assess both the present and sustainable fish productivity based on the data collected through direct catch assessment survey, fishing effort survey and catch per unit effort calculation. Hike in relative abundance values like numbers of fish catch (>3.78 times), catch per gear effort (>2.6 times), fish density (>2.65 times) and fall in relative biomass values like catch per gear effort, catch per unit effort and fish standing biomass (>41%) were observed during monsoon compared to premonsoon due to flooded turbid water from the river Ganga and jute retting processes during monsoon. Jute retting and indiscriminate over fishing of the monsoon made fish production reduced by >50% during post monsoon. The current fish productivity was estimated at 1146.64kg/ha/year supporting only 23.33% livelihoods of enlisted fishers and about 97.67% of fish production remains unreported every year in the official records of the cooperative society based on the oxbow lake ecosystem indicating inefficient management. Total sustainable production of 285MT (@5MT/ha/year) with total operating capital need of INR 1.00 crore (@INR 0.01716 crore/ha/year) with benefit cost ratio of 4.28 was estimated as the sustainable and replicable basis for promotion of organic aquaculture supporting 100% livelihoods of all fishers and rejuvenating the management of the present oxbow lake ecosystem.

Keywords: Fish, Flood, Ganga, Jute-retting, Oxbow-lake, Sustainable-productivity

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Growth and yield attributes of four varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in Anambra State, Nigeria

N.A.  Igboabuchi

Department of Biology, Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State, NIGERIA
E-mail: mumngozi@gmail.com
Received: 05, March 2017; Revised received: 08, March 2017; Accepted: 16, March 2017

Field experiments were conducted during the cropping season of the year 2014, to evaluate the growth and yield parameters of four varieties of cowpea (IT04K-223-1, IT04K-321-2, IT04K-332-1 and IT04K-217-5) at Nsugbe Anambra State, Southeastern rainforest zone of Nigeria. A randomized complete block design, replicated three times was used.  The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. Results showed significant differences (P<0.05) among the varieties evaluated in both growth and yield. Variety IT04K-321-2 consistently yielded better than other varieties evaluated. It had the highest number of pods per plant, pod weight, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seeds weight and plant height with the values of 43.80, 3.01, 4.05, 16.30 and 43.92cm respectively.  From the study, it is established that varietal differences exist in cowpea with respect to growth and yield attributes. Under proper management, the yield obtained from Nsugbe area of Anambra State could be compared with yields from other cowpea growing States. This study therefore recommended that variety IT04K-321-2, which had comparable higher yield and was adapted to Nsugbe area be integrated into the farming system for maximum yield and utilization. Farmers are therefore encouraged to integrate this variety into their farming system for maximum yield and utilization in the study area

Keywords: Cowpea, Growth, Varietal trial, Yield 
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Study of snail and slug population dynamics in relation to edaphic factors in plant nurseries near Buddha Nullah, Ludhiana (Punjab), India

Manpreet Kaur, B.K. Babbar* and Harjit Kaur

Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: bhupinder@pau.edu
Received: 20, March 2017; Accepted: 30, March 2017

The present study was conducted to study of snail and slug population dynamics in relation to edaphic factors in plant nurseries near Buddha Nullah, Ludhiana (Punjab), India., In the survey of four ornamental plant nurseries viz., Prabhakar, Tulsigaurd, Laxmi plant nurseries near Buddha nullah, Ludhiana and one reference site Punjab Agricultural University nursery, Ludhiana revealed the presence of only one species of both snails and slugs viz., Macrochlamys indica and Filicaulis alteviz. brown slug with black spots respectively in the four plant nurseries. Population density of slugs and snails was maximum in the month of August in all the plant nurseries indicating moisture ranging from 32.36 to 33.5 and temperature ranging from 21.5 to 23.25°C favours the population growth of both slugs and snails. Snail, M. indica and slug, F. alte preferred sandy loamy alkaline soil with high moisture, nitrogen, particle density, high organic matter content, high potassium and phosphorous concentrations, porosity and low bulk density.

Keywords: Buddha Nullah, Filicaulis alte, Macrochlamys indica
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Growth and yield of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) as influenced by seed rate and method of planting in Sokoto, Nigeria

M.B. Sokoto* and O. Victor

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: mbsokoto2003@yahoo.com
Received: 07, March 2017; Revised received: 13, March 2017; Accepted: 16, March 2017

Amaranthus cruentus L. is a leafy vegetable commonly cultivated in Nigeria and other West African countries. In Nigeria farmers considered amaranths as a minor crop, they plant amaranths without any consideration of seed rate and this result to suboptimum plant population, similarly broadcasting (which results to wasted of seeds and overcrowding of plants) was predominantly the major method of planting used while planting, Field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed rate and method of planting on growth and yield of Amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) at Sokoto. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of four (4) seed rates (2.0 kgha-1, 2.5 kgha-1, 3.0 kg ha-1 and 3.5 kg ha-1) and two (2) methods of planting (Broadcasting and Drilling). The results revealed that seed rate at 3.0 kg ha-1 produced significantly taller plants, followed by seed rate at 2.5 kg ha-1  and the shortest plants was from seed rate at 2.0 and 3.5 kg ha-1 at 4, 6 and 8 Weeks After Planting  (WAP). However, method of planting and interaction between seed rate and method of planting had no significant effect on plant height at 2, 4, 6 and 8 WAP, Seed rate and method of planting and their interaction had no significant effect on number of leaves and Leaf area at harvest. Seed rate at 3kg ha-1 produced significantly highest fresh and dry weight. Seed rate at 3kg ha-1 and drilling method of planting would be beneficial for the farmers in Sokoto State and areas with similar environmental conditions for optimum yield of amaranths.

Keywords: Amaranth, Growth, Method of planting, Seed rate, Yield
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Heavy metals and microbial contamination of certain leafy vegetables grown in abattoir effluent disposal province of Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh), India

Vinod Kumar1* Sachin Srivastava2, R.K. Chauhan3, Roushan K. Thakur and Jogendra Singh1
1Agro-ecology and Pollution Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Forestry, Roorkee Institute of Technology-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
3Department of Chemistry, Indira Gandhi National College, Ladwa, Kurukshetra-136132 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: drvksorwal@gmail.com
Received: 12, December 2017; Revised received: 20, January 2017; Accepted: 26, February 2017

The present investigation was carried out to study the heavy metals and microbial contamination of four selected leafy vegetables viz., cabbage, lettuce, coriander and spinach grown in abattoir effluent irrigated soil. The results revealed that the values of various parameters of abattoir effluent viz., TDS (2840 mg L-1), BOD (2480.50 mg L-1), COD (2890.00 mg L-1), total N (195.80 mg L-1), Fe (18.48 mg L-1), Mn (2.88 mg L-1), total bacteria (6.97×108 CFU ml -1), coliform bacteria (3.24×104 MPN 100 ml -1) and total fungi (7.78×105 CFU ml -1) were found beyond the prescribed limit of Indian irrigation standards. The abattoir effluent irrigation significantly (p<0.05/p<0.01) increased the EC, total N, available P, OC, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, total bacteria, coliform bacteria of the soil used for the cultivation of cabbage, lettuce, coriander and spinach in comparison to their respective controls. The most numbers of bacteria (8.67×108 CFU ml-1), coliform bacteria (7.80×105 MPN 100 ml-1) and total fungi (9.85×105 CFU ml-1) were noted in the lettuce after abattoir effluent irrigation. Therefore, the higher contents of heavy metals and microbial population in cabbage, lettuce, coriander and spinach might be related to their contents in the soils irrigated with abattoir effluent. Therefore, the agronomical practices with abattoir effluent should be regularly monitored to avert environmental problems and attendant health hazards.

Keywords: Abattoir effluent, Heavy metals, Leafy vegetables, Microbial contamination Monitoring, Water quality
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Morphological and nutritional assessment of leaf, stem and root of Zanthoxylum macrophylla (Rutaceae)

C.V. Ilodibia*, E. Nnaji, B.O. Aziagba  and C.A.  Ezeabara 
Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B 5025, Awka, Anambra State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: chinyereokafor206@yahoo.com
Received: 08, March 2017; Revised received: 16, March 2017; Accepted: 22, March 2017

Morphological and nutritional studies were carried out on various parts (leaf, stem, root and petiole) of Zanthoxylum macrophylla to determine its taxonomical and nutrient data with regards to morphological and nutritional characters using standard methods. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed in data analyses. Result revealed among other features, the habit of the plant to be tree with prickle stem, imparipinnately compound and reticulate leaves. The various parts contained all the investigated nutrients but in varied quantities. Moisture and fibre were highest in the leaf, (9.40%±0.009) and (14.55%±0.016) of Z. macrophylla respectively. Fat and ash were highest in the stem (10.75%±0.125 and 5.10±0.010) of Z. macrophylla respectively. Both (the stem and the leaf Z. macrophylla) have equal amount of protein (5.95±0.007 and 5.95±0.001) respectively. Results have indicated that these parts of Z. macrophylla are rich in nutrient and could be extracted for the manufacture of food supplements and drugs. The obtained data could be used to enhance proper taxonomic characterisation and identification of the species Z. macrophylla.

Keywords: Morphological characteristics, Nutritional composition, Plant parts, Zanthoxylum macrophylla
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Food insecurity in rural Nigeria during the lean season: Causes and coping

Jabo, Muhammad Sani Muhammad1,2* Ismail Mohamed Mansor2, Shamsudin, Mad. Nasir2 and Abdullah, Amin Mahir2 and Abdullahi Yakubu Abbas1
1Department of Agricultural Economics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto P.M.B 2346, Sokoto, NIGERIA
2Department of Agribusiness and Information Systems, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: sani.jabo@yahoo.com
Received: 15, March 2017; Accepted: 25, March 2017

This study used a national representative sample of 3380 household from the general household survey-panel (GHS-Panel) to examine the causes and coping strategies among the rural households in Nigeria. The post-planting survey visit, which is the first round of its kind in Nigeria was carried out in (August-October, 2010), it was done immediately after planting season to collect information on land preparation, input and labour utilization.  The results shown that soaring food prices and drought together constituted the highest causes of household food insecurity with about (42%) according to the household responses. The cumulative food insecurity strategy index (CSI) is an inverse function approach, which means that an increase in the use of coping strategies indicate a decrease in food security. The results reveal that, households within the age category of greater than or equals to 71 years are having the highest CSI (71.1%). While the least food insecure are the household heads within the age cohort of 31-40 years with only 25.7 % CSI. Poverty alleviation programs and encouraging sustainable non-farm income generating activities among the rural households would have positive impact on the food security situation in rural Nigeria.

Keywords: Coping strategies, Food insecurity, Nigeria, Rural households
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A review on the feasibility of electrolytic treatment of wastewater: Prospective and constraints

Vinod Kumar
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
E-mail: drvksorwal@gkv.ac.in Received: 15, February; Received: 28, February; Accepted: 05, March 2017

Electrolytic treatment of wastewater utilizes the electric energy to remover the pollutants from the wastewater. Considerable efforts have been made to purify the different types of wastewater using various electrolytic treatment devices, apparatus and reactors. The present review focuses on the recent development in the electrolytic treatments considering the views of the past work in this field. Most studies have been performed on iron, steel, aluminium and zinc electrodes using various current densities and electrolysis time. Moreover, these studies have been carried out on the removal of different physico-chemical, heavy metals and microbiological parameters using different types of wastewater. In this review the main emphasis has been given to the removal of physico-chemical parameters viz., colour, turbidity, EC, TSS, BOD, COD and heavy metals of the wastewater. The literature on the electrolytic treatment methods using different types of wastewater is surveyed and physico-chemical parameters of wastewater are reviewed. Besides this impact of current density, electrode types, time of electric current application along with the removal efficiency are also discussed in the present review. Additionally, various aspects of the electrolytic treatment of wastewater like impact of temperature, coagulation and flocculation rate are also discussed to make the literature more specific and generalization to understand the electrolytic treatment of wastewater. Therefore, the future directions of the research could be focused on the more efficient removal of pollutants from the wastewater using electrolytic technology in order to achieve the safe limits of wastewater for the reuse and discharge as per water quality standards.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Electrolytic treatment, Physico-chemical parameters, Pollutants, Removal efficiency, Wastewater
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